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1. Overview

This tutorial shows how to set up Spring with JPA, using Hibernate as a persistence provider.

For a step by step introduction about setting up the Spring context using Java based configuration and the basic Maven pom for the project, see this article.

We'll start by setting up JPA in a Spring Boot project, then we'll look into the full configuration we need if we have a standard Spring project.

Further reading:

Defining JPA Entities

Learn how to define entities and customize them using the Java Persistence API.

Spring Boot with Hibernate

A quick, practical intro to integrating Spring Boot and Hibernate/JPA.

NEW: Here is a video on setting up Hibernate 4 with Spring 4 (I recommend watching it in full 1080p):

2. JPA in Spring Boot

The Spring Boot project is intended to make creating Spring applications much faster and easier. This is done with the use of starters and auto-configuration for various Spring functionalities, JPA among them.

2.1. Maven Dependencies

To enable JPA in a Spring Boot application, we need the spring-boot-starter and spring-boot-starter-data-jpa dependencies:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
    <version>2.1.4.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
    <version>2.1.4.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

The spring-boot-starter contains the necessary auto-configuration for Spring JPA. Also, the spring-boot-starter-jpa project references all the necessary dependencies such as hibernate-entitymanager.

2.2. Configuration

Spring Boot configures Hibernate as the default JPA provider, so it's no longer necessary to define the entityManagerFactory bean unless we want to customize it.

Spring Boot can also auto-configure the dataSource bean, depending on the database we're using. In the case of an in-memory database of type H2, HSQLDB and Apache Derby, Boot automatically configures the DataSource if the corresponding database dependency is present on the classpath.

For example, if we want to use an in-memory H2 database in a Spring Boot JPA application, we only need to add the h2 dependency to the pom.xml file:

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.h2database</groupId>
    <artifactId>h2</artifactId>
    <version>1.4.197</version>
</dependency>

This way, we don't need to define the dataSource bean, but we can do so if we want to customize it.

If we want to use JPA with MySQL database, then we need the mysql-connector-java dependency, as well as to define the DataSource configuration.

We can do this in a @Configuration class, or by using standard Spring Boot properties.

The Java configuration looks the same as it does in a standard Spring project:

@Bean
public DataSource dataSource() {
    DriverManagerDataSource dataSource = new DriverManagerDataSource();

    dataSource.setDriverClassName("com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver");
    dataSource.setUsername("mysqluser");
    dataSource.setPassword("mysqlpass");
    dataSource.setUrl(
      "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/myDb?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true"); 
    
    return dataSource;
}

To configure the data source using a properties file, we have to set properties prefixed with spring.datasource:

spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.username=mysqluser
spring.datasource.password=mysqlpass
spring.datasource.url=
  jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/myDb?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true

Spring Boot will automatically configure a data source based on these properties.

Also in Spring Boot 1, the default connection pool was Tomcat, but with Spring Boot 2 it has been changed to HikariCP.

You can find more examples of configuring JPA in Spring Boot in the GitHub project.

As we can see, the basic JPA configuration is fairly simple if we're using Spring Boot.

However, if we have a standard Spring project, then we need more explicit configuration, using either Java or XML. That's what we'll focus on in the next sections.

3. The JPA Spring Configuration with Java – in a non-Boot Project

To use JPA in a Spring project, we need to set up the EntityManager.

This is the main part of the configuration and we can do it via a Spring factory bean. This can be either the simpler LocalEntityManagerFactoryBean or the more flexible LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean.

Let's see how we can use the latter option:

@Configuration
@EnableTransactionManagement
public class PersistenceJPAConfig{

   @Bean
   public LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean entityManagerFactory() {
      LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean em 
        = new LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean();
      em.setDataSource(dataSource());
      em.setPackagesToScan(new String[] { "com.baeldung.persistence.model" });

      JpaVendorAdapter vendorAdapter = new HibernateJpaVendorAdapter();
      em.setJpaVendorAdapter(vendorAdapter);
      em.setJpaProperties(additionalProperties());

      return em;
   }
   
   // ...

}

We also need to explicitly define the DataSource bean we've used above:

@Bean
public DataSource dataSource(){
    DriverManagerDataSource dataSource = new DriverManagerDataSource();
    dataSource.setDriverClassName("com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver");
    dataSource.setUrl("jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/spring_jpa");
    dataSource.setUsername( "tutorialuser" );
    dataSource.setPassword( "tutorialmy5ql" );
    return dataSource;
}

The final part of the configuration are the additional Hibernate properties and the TransactionManager and exceptionTranslation beans:

@Bean
public PlatformTransactionManager transactionManager(EntityManagerFactory emf) {
    JpaTransactionManager transactionManager = new JpaTransactionManager();
    transactionManager.setEntityManagerFactory(emf);

    return transactionManager;
}

@Bean
public PersistenceExceptionTranslationPostProcessor exceptionTranslation(){
    return new PersistenceExceptionTranslationPostProcessor();
}

Properties additionalProperties() {
    Properties properties = new Properties();
    properties.setProperty("hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto", "create-drop");
    properties.setProperty("hibernate.dialect", "org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect");
       
    return properties;
}

4. The JPA Spring Configuration with XML

Next, let's see the same Spring Configuration with XML:

<bean id="myEmf" 
  class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean">
    <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" />
    <property name="packagesToScan" value="com.baeldung.persistence.model" />
    <property name="jpaVendorAdapter">
        <bean class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.HibernateJpaVendorAdapter" />
    </property>
    <property name="jpaProperties">
        <props>
            <prop key="hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto">create-drop</prop>
            <prop key="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect</prop>
        </props>
    </property>
</bean>

<bean id="dataSource" 
  class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource">
    <property name="driverClassName" value="com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver" />
    <property name="url" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/spring_jpa" />
    <property name="username" value="tutorialuser" />
    <property name="password" value="tutorialmy5ql" />
</bean>

<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTransactionManager">
    <property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="myEmf" />
</bean>
<tx:annotation-driven />

<bean id="persistenceExceptionTranslationPostProcessor" class=
  "org.springframework.dao.annotation.PersistenceExceptionTranslationPostProcessor" />

There is a relatively small difference between the XML and the new Java-based configuration. Namely, in XML, a reference to another bean can point to either the bean or a bean factory for that bean.

In Java, however, since the types are different, the compiler doesn't allow it, and so the EntityManagerFactory is first retrieved from its bean factory and then passed to the transaction manager:

txManager.setEntityManagerFactory(this.entityManagerFactoryBean().getObject());

5. Going Full XML-less

Usually, JPA defines a persistence unit through the META-INF/persistence.xml file. Starting with Spring 3.1, the persistence.xml is no longer necessary. The LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean now supports a ‘packagesToScan' property where the packages to scan for @Entity classes can be specified.

This file was the last piece of XML we need to remove. We can now set up JPA fully with no XML.

We would usually specify JPA properties in the persistence.xml file. Alternatively, we can add the properties directly to the entity manager factory bean:

factoryBean.setJpaProperties(this.additionalProperties());

As a side-note, if Hibernate would be the persistence provider, then this would be the way to specify Hibernate specific properties.

6. The Maven Configuration

In addition to the Spring Core and persistence dependencies – show in detail in the Spring with Maven tutorial – we also need to define JPA and Hibernate in the project, as well as a MySQL connector:

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
   <artifactId>hibernate-entitymanager</artifactId>
   <version>5.4.2.Final</version>
   <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

<dependency>
   <groupId>mysql</groupId>
   <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
   <version>6.0.6</version>
   <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

Note that the MySQL dependency is included as an example. We need a driver to configure the datasource, but any Hibernate supported database will do.

7. Conclusion

This tutorial illustrated how to configure JPA with Hibernate in Spring in both a Spring Boot, and a standard Spring application.

As always, the code presented in this article is available over on Github.

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Eberhard Wolff
Guest
Eberhard Wolff

Thanks for the article! You should consider Spring Data JPA – it has quite a few nice features around generic DAOs: http://www.springsource.org/spring-data/jpa

Constantine
Guest
Constantine

Spring Data JPA (formerly known as Hades) is based on the same principle and takes the approach much further. With it being available for so now – as part of Spring – I’m not sure I see the relevance of this otherwise formidable post.

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

Thank you for the suggestion. As it happens, the latest article (just published today) is indeed on Spring Data.

ctrlspace
Guest
ctrlspace

How would I use this to configure an active record style of pojo instead of using daos? I’m having issues with:
Entity manager has not been injected (is the Spring Aspects JAR configured as an AJC/AJDT aspects library?)

ctrlspace
Guest
ctrlspace

got it to work by adding:
@EnableSpringConfigured
to the ApplicationConfig but I’m not sure why that worked.

Tsingh007
Guest
Tsingh007

should FooDAO extends AbstractHibernateDAO not be like extents JPADAO?

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

Yes it should. Thanks for the feedback.

Gauthier Peel
Guest
Gauthier Peel

I don’t see any @Transactional on your classes. So how could the works ?

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

The DAO is not @Transactional – the service layer is, and since this article focuses on DAO layer, that’s not included. Note that there is an article dealing specifically with transaction configuration: http://www.baeldung.com/2011/12/26/transaction-configuration-with-jpa-and-spring-3-1/

Gauthier Peel
Guest
Gauthier Peel

thanks, i will check out the whole project.
I noticed you uused :
public FooDAO(){ setClazz(Foo.class ); }

I used the follwing trick (not it is always valid though) in the abstract class :

private Class clazz;

@SuppressWarnings(“unchecked”)
public AbstractJpaDAO() {
this.clazz= ((Class) ((ParameterizedType) getClass().getGenericSuperclass())
.getActualTypeArguments()[0]);
}

so the subclass does not need to give a value to clazz …

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