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1. Overview

Spring REST Docs and OpenAPI 3.0 are two ways to create API documentation for a REST API.

In this tutorial, we'll examine their relative advantages and disadvantages.

2. A Brief Summary of Origins

Spring REST Docs is a framework developed by the Spring community in order to create accurate documentation for RESTful APIs. It takes a test-driven approach, wherein the documentation is written either as Spring MVC tests, Spring Webflux's WebTestClient, or REST-Assured.

The output of running the tests is created as AsciiDoc files which can be put together using Asciidoctor to generate an HTML page describing our APIs. Since it follows the TDD method, Spring REST Docs automatically brings in all its advantages such as less error-prone code, reduced rework, and faster feedback cycles, to name a few.

OpenAPI, on the other hand, is a specification born out of Swagger 2.0. Its latest version as of writing this is 3.0 and has many known implementations.

As any other specification would, OpenAPI lays out certain ground rules for its implementations to follow. Simply put, all OpenAPI implementations are supposed to produce the documentation as a JSON object, either in JSON or YAML format.

There also exist many tools that take this JSON/YAML in and spit out a UI to visualize and navigate the API. This comes in handy during acceptance testing, for example. In our code samples here, we'll be using springdoc – a library for OpenAPI 3 with Spring Boot.

Before looking at the two in detail, let's quickly set up an API to be documented.


Let's put together a basic CRUD API using Spring Boot.

3.1. The Repository

Here, the repository that we'll be using is a bare-bones PagingAndSortingRepository interface, with the model Foo:

public interface FooRepository extends PagingAndSortingRepository<Foo, Long>{}

public class Foo {
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private long id;
    @Column(nullable = false)
    private String title;
    private String body;

    // constructor, getters and setters

We'll also load the repository using a schema.sql and a data.sql.

3.2. The Controller

Next, let's look at the controller, skipping its implementation details for brevity:

public class FooController {

    FooRepository repository;

    public ResponseEntity<List<Foo>> getAllFoos() {
        // implementation

    @GetMapping(value = "{id}")
    public ResponseEntity<Foo> getFooById(@PathVariable("id") Long id) {
        // implementation

    public ResponseEntity<Foo> addFoo(@RequestBody @Valid Foo foo) {
        // implementation

    public ResponseEntity<Void> deleteFoo(@PathVariable("id") long id) {
        // implementation

    public ResponseEntity<Foo> updateFoo(@PathVariable("id") long id, @RequestBody Foo foo) {
        // implementation

3.3. The Application

And finally, the Boot App:

public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);

4. OpenAPI / Springdoc

Now let's see how springdoc can add documentation to our Foo REST API.

Recall that it'll generate a JSON object and a UI visualization of the API based on that object.

4.1. Basic UI

To begin with, we'll just add a couple of Maven dependencies – springdoc-openapi-data-rest for generating the JSON, and springdoc-openapi-ui for rendering the UI.

The tool will introspect the code for our API, and read the controller methods' annotations. On that basis, it'll generate the API JSON which will be live at http://localhost:8080/api-docs/. It'll also serve a basic UI at http://localhost:8080/swagger-ui-custom.html:

As we can see, without adding any code at all, we obtained a beautiful visualization of our API, right down to the Foo schema. Using the Try it out button, we can even execute the operations and view the results.

Now, what if we wanted to add some real documentation to the API? In terms of what the API is all about, what all its operations mean, what should be input, and what responses to expect?

We'll look at this in the next section.

4.2. Detailed UI

Let's first see how to add a general description to the API.

For that, we'll add an OpenAPI bean to our Boot App:

public OpenAPI customOpenAPI(@Value("${springdoc.version}") String appVersion) {
    return new OpenAPI().info(new Info()
      .title("Foobar API")
      .description("This is a sample Foobar server created using springdocs - " + 
        "a library for OpenAPI 3 with spring boot.")
      .license(new License().name("Apache 2.0")

Next, to add some information to our API operations, we'll decorate our mappings with a few OpenAPI-specific annotations.

Let's see how we can describe getFooById. We'll do this inside another controller, FooBarController, which is similar to our FooController:

@Tag(name = "foobar", description = "the foobar API with documentation annotations")
public class FooBarController {
    FooRepository repository;

    @Operation(summary = "Get a foo by foo id")
    @ApiResponses(value = {
      @ApiResponse(responseCode = "200", description = "found the foo", content = { 
        @Content(mediaType = "application/json", schema = @Schema(implementation = Foo.class))}),
      @ApiResponse(responseCode = "400", description = "Invalid id supplied", content = @Content), 
      @ApiResponse(responseCode = "404", description = "Foo not found", content = @Content) })
    @GetMapping(value = "{id}")
    public ResponseEntity getFooById(@Parameter(description = "id of foo to be searched") 
      @PathVariable("id") String id) {
        // implementation omitted for brevity
    // other mappings, similarly annotated with @Operation and @ApiResponses

Now let's see the effect on the UI:

So with these minimal configurations, the user of our API can now see what it's about, how to use it, and what results to expect. All we had to do was compile the code and run the Boot App.

5. Spring REST Docs

REST docs is a totally different take on API documentation. As described earlier, the process is test-driven, and the output is in the form of a static HTML page.

In our example here, we'll be using Spring MVC Tests to create documentation snippets.

At the outset, we'll need to add the spring-restdocs-mockmvc dependency and the asciidoc Maven plugin to our pom.

5.1. The JUnit5 Test

Now let's have a look at the JUnit5 test which includes our documentation:

@ExtendWith({ RestDocumentationExtension.class, SpringExtension.class })
@SpringBootTest(classes = Application.class)
public class SpringRestDocsIntegrationTest {
    private MockMvc mockMvc;
    private ObjectMapper objectMapper;

    public void setup(WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext, 
      RestDocumentationContextProvider restDocumentation) {
        this.mockMvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext)

    public void whenGetFooById_thenSuccessful() throws Exception {
        ConstraintDescriptions desc = new ConstraintDescriptions(Foo.class);
        this.mockMvc.perform(get("/foo/{id}", 1))
          .andDo(document("getAFoo", preprocessRequest(prettyPrint()), 
            pathParameters(parameterWithName("id").description("id of foo to be searched")),
              .description("The id of the foo" + 
                collectionToDelimitedString(desc.descriptionsForProperty("id"), ". ")),
              fieldWithPath("title").description("The title of the foo"), 
              fieldWithPath("body").description("The body of the foo"))));

    // more test methods to cover other mappings


After running this test, we get several files in our targets/generated-snippets directory with information about the given API operation. Particularly, whenGetFooById_thenSuccessful will give us eight adocs in a getAFoo folder in the directory.

Here's a sample http-response.adoc, of course containing the response body:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 60

  "id" : 1,
  "title" : "Foo 1",
  "body" : "Foo body 1"

5.2. fooapi.adoc

Now we need a master file that will weave all these snippets together to form a well-structured HTML.

Let's call it fooapi.adoc and see a small portion of it:

=== Accessing the foo GET
A `GET` request is used to access the foo read.

==== Request structure

==== Path Parameters

==== Example response

==== CURL request

After executing the asciidoctor-maven-plugin, we get the final HTML file fooapi.html in the target/generated-docs folder.

And this is how it'll look when opened in a browser:

6. Key Takeaways

Now that we've looked at both the implementations, let's summarize the advantages and disadvantages.

With springdoc, the annotations we had to use cluttered our rest controller's code and reduced its readability. Also, the documentation was tightly coupled to the code and would make its way into production.

Needless to say, maintaining the documentation is another challenge here – if something in the API changed, would the programmer always remember to update the corresponding OpenAPI annotation?

On the other hand, REST Docs neither looks as catchy as the other UI did nor can it be used for acceptance testing. But it has its advantages.

Notably, the successful completion of the Spring MVC test not only gives us the snippets but also verifies our API as any other unit test would. This forces us to make documentation changes corresponding to API modifications if any. Also, the documentation code is completely separate from the implementation.

But again, on the flip side, we had to write more code to generate the documentation. First, the test itself which is arguably as verbose as the OpenAPI annotations, and second, the master adoc.

It also needs more steps to generate the final HTML – running the test first and then the plugin.  Springdoc only required us to run the Boot App.

7. Conclusion

In this tutorial, we looked at the differences between the OpenAPI based springdoc and Spring REST Docs. We also saw how to implement the two to generate documentation for a basic CRUD API.

In summary, both have their pros and cons, and the decision of using one over the other is subject to our specific requirements.

As always, source code is available over on GitHub.

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Get started with Spring 5 and Spring Boot 2, through the Learn Spring course:

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Get started with Spring 5 and Spring Boot 2, through the Learn Spring course :

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