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1. Overview

In this quick tutorial, we'll learn about the @DirtiesContext annotation. We'll also show a standard way to use the annotation for testing.

2. @DirtiesContext

@DirtiesContext is a Spring testing annotation. It indicates the associated test or class modifies the ApplicationContext. It tells the testing framework to close and recreate the context for later tests.

We can annotate a test method or an entire class. By setting the MethodMode or ClassMode, we can control when Spring marks the context for closure.

If we place @DirtiesContext on a class, the annotation applies to every method in the class with the given ClassMode.

3. Testing Without Clearing the Spring Context

Let's say we have a User:

public class User {
    String firstName;
    String lastName;
}

We also have a very simple UserCache:

@Component
public class UserCache {

    @Getter
    private Set<String> userList = new HashSet<>();

    public boolean addUser(String user) {
        return userList.add(user);
    }

    public void printUserList(String message) {
        System.out.println(message + ": " + userList);
    }

}

We create an integration test to load up and test the full application:

@TestMethodOrder(OrderAnnotation.class)
@ExtendWith(SpringExtension.class)
@SpringBootTest(classes = SpringDataRestApplication.class)
class DirtiesContextIntegrationTest {

    @Autowired
    protected UserCache userCache;
    
    ...
}

The first method, addJaneDoeAndPrintCache, adds an entry to the cache:

@Test
@Order(1)
void addJaneDoeAndPrintCache() {
    userCache.addUser("Jane Doe");
    userCache.printUserList("addJaneDoeAndPrintCache");
}

After adding a user to the cache, it prints the contents of the cache:

addJaneDoeAndPrintCache: [Jane Doe]

Next, printCache prints the user cache again:

@Test
@Order(2)
void printCache() {
    userCache.printUserList("printCache");
}

It contains the name added in the previous test:

printCache: [Jane Doe]

Let's say a later test was relying on an empty cache for some assertions. The previously inserted names may cause undesired behavior.

4. Using @DirtiesContext

Now we'll show @DirtiesContext with the default MethodModeAFTER_METHOD. This means Spring will mark the context for closure after the corresponding test method completes.

To isolate changes to a test, we add @DirtiesContext. Let's see how it works.

The addJohnDoeAndPrintCache test method adds a user to the cache. We have also added the @DirtiesContext annotation, which says the context should shut down at the end of the test method:

@DirtiesContext(methodMode = MethodMode.AFTER_METHOD)
@Test
@Order(3)
void addJohnDoeAndPrintCache() {
    userCache.addUser("John Doe");
    userCache.printUserList("addJohnDoeAndPrintCache");
}

The output is now:

addJohnDoeAndPrintCache: [John Doe, Jane Doe]

Finally, printCacheAgain prints the cache again:

@Test
@Order(4)
void printCacheAgain() {
    userCache.printUserList("printCacheAgain");
}

Running the full test class, we see the Spring context reload in between addJohnDoeAndPrintCache and printCacheAgain. So the cache reinitializes, and the output is empty:

printCacheAgain: []

5. Other Supported Test Phases

The example above shows the after current test method phase. Let's do a quick summary of the phases:

5.1. Class Level

The ClassMode options for a test class define when the context is reset:

  • BEFORE_CLASS: Before current test class
  • BEFORE_EACH_TEST_METHOD: Before each test method in the current test class
  • AFTER_EACH_TEST_METHOD: After each test method in the current test class
  • AFTER_CLASS: After the current test class

5.2. Method Level

The MethodMode options for an individual method define when the context is reset:

  • BEFORE_METHOD: Before the current test method
  • AFTER_METHOD: After the current test method

6. Conclusion

In this article, we presented the @DirtiesContext testing annotation.

As always, the example code is available over on GitHub.

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