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1. Overview

In this article, we’ll explore the basics of Spring Data Solr in a practical manner.

Apache Solr is an open source ready to deploy enterprise full-text search engine. You can find more about the features of Solr on the official website.

We’ll show how to do a simple Solr configuration and of course how to interact with the server.

First, we need to start a Solr server and create a core to store data (which, by default Solr will create in schemaless mode).

2. Spring Data

Just as any other Spring Data project, Spring Data Solr has a clear goal to remove boilerplate codes, which we’ll definitely take advantage of.

2.1. Maven Dependency

Let’s start by adding the Spring Data Solr dependency to our pom.xml:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.data</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-data-solr</artifactId>
    <version>2.0.5.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

You can find the latest dependencies here.

2.2. Defining the Document

Let’s define a document called Product:

@SolrDocument(solrCoreName = "product")
public class Product {
   
    @Id
    @Indexed(name = "id", type = "string")
    private String id;

    @Indexed(name = "name", type = "string")
    private String name;

}

@SolrDocument annotation indicates that the Product class is a Solr document and indexed to core named product. Fields annotated with @Indexed are indexed in Solr and will be searchable.

2.3. Defining Repository Interface

Next, we need to create a repository interface by extending a repository provided by Spring Data Solr. We’ll naturally parametrize this with Product and String as our entity id:

public interface ProductRepository extends SolrCrudRepository<Product, String> {

    public List<Product> findByName(String name);

    @Query("id:*?0* OR name:*?0*")
    public Page<Product> findByCustomQuery(String searchTerm, Pageable pageable);

    @Query(name = "Product.findByNamedQuery")
    public Page<Product> findByNamedQuery(String searchTerm, Pageable pageable);

}

Notice how we’re defining three methods here, on top of the API provided by SolrCrudRepository. We’ll talk about these in the next few sections.

Also note that the Product.findByNamedQuery property is defined in Solr named query file solr-named-queries.properties in the classpath folder:

Product.findByNamedQuery=id:*?0* OR name:*?0*

2.4. Java Configuration

Now we’ll explore the Spring configuration of Solr persistence layer:

@Configuration
@EnableSolrRepositories(
  basePackages = "com.baeldung.spring.data.solr.repository",
  namedQueriesLocation = "classpath:solr-named-queries.properties",
  multicoreSupport = true)
@ComponentScan
public class SolrConfig {

    @Bean
    public SolrClient solrClient() {
        return new HttpSolrClient("http://localhost:8983/solr");
    }

    @Bean
    public SolrTemplate solrTemplate(SolrClient client) throws Exception {
        return new SolrTemplate(client);
    }
}

We are using @EnableSolrRepositories to scan the packages for repositories. Note that we have specified the location of the named query properties file and enabled multi-core support.

If multi-core is not enabled, then by default Spring Data will assume that Solr configuration is for a single core. We’re enabling multi-core here, just for reference.

3. Indexing, Updating and Deleting

In order to search documents in Solr, documents should be indexed to Solr repository.

Following example indexes a product document in Solr repository simply by using the SolrCrudRepository’s save method:

Product phone = new Product();
phone.setId("P0001");
phone.setName("Phone");
productRepository.save(phone);

Now let’s retrieve and update a document:

Product retrievedProduct = productRepository.findOne("P0001");
retrievedProduct.setName("Smart Phone");
productRepository.save(retrievedProduct);

Documents can be deleted by simply calling the delete method:

productRepository.delete(retrievedProduct);

4. Querying

Let’s now explore different querying techniques provided by the Spring Data Solr API.

4.1. Method Name Query Generation

Method name based queries are generated by parsing the method name to generate the expected query to execute:

public List<Product> findByName(String name);

In our repository interface, we have findByName method which generates query based on method name:

List<Product> retrievedProducts = productRepository.findByName("Phone");

4.2. Query with @Query Annotation

Solr search queries can be created by having the query in a @Query annotation of a method. In our example findByCustomQuery is annotated with @Query annotation:

@Query("id:*?0* OR name:*?0*")
public Page<Product> findByCustomQuery(String searchTerm, Pageable pageable);

Let’s use this method to retrieve documents:

Page<Product> result 
  = productRepository.findByCustomQuery("Phone", new PageRequest(0, 10));

By calling the findByCustomQuery(“Phone”, new PageRequest(0, 10)) we obtain the first page of the product documents which contain the word “Phone” in any of its fields id or name.

4.3. Named Query

Named queries are similar to queries with @Query annotation except the queries are declared in a separate properties file:

@Query(name = "Product.findByNamedQuery")
public Page<Product> findByNamedQuery(String searchTerm, Pageable pageable);

Note that the @Query annotation is not required if the key (findByNamedQuery) of the query in properties file matches the method name.

Let’s retrieve some documents using named query method:

Page<Product> result 
  = productRepository.findByNamedQuery("one", new PageRequest(0, 10));

5. Conclusion

This article is a quick and practical introduction to Spring Data Solr, covering the basic configuration, defining repositories and naturally – querying.

And as always, the examples used here are available as a sample project on Github.

I just announced the new Spring Boot 2 material, coming in REST With Spring:

>> CHECK OUT THE LESSONS

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Bartosz Jaszczak
Guest
Bartosz Jaszczak

Hi, thanks for article, but I’ve got one question. What about fetching just part of solr document? for example form query:

@Query(“id:*?0* OR name:*?0*”)
public Page findByCustomQuery(String searchTerm, Pageable pageable)

I would like to get only products names as List. Is it possible? I know i could always do it programmatically after, but i would like to do some sql like query.

Mujah
Guest
Mujah

Hi @bartoszjaszczak:disqus ,

Part of the document can be retrieved using the “fields” parameter:

@Query(value = “id:*?0* OR name:*?0*”,fields={“name”})

But the return type will be a list of beans (i.e products) with only the fields mentioned in the query populated.

Hugo Miguel Silva
Guest
Hugo Miguel Silva

Hello Baeldung, I have understood your tutorial, it was really clear but I index data to solr. the Entities are correct, I think my problem is on SolrConfig java class because my doubt is the base-package value. Can you explain me what is that value? where is pointing to solr server?
I hope that my response was understandable 🙂
Cheers

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

Hey Miguel,
Jumping right into it – the basePackages value is simply the package where your repositories exist. Most Spring Data projects have that – and it’s always to simply make sure that Spring Data picks up your repo interfaces and creates the beans.
Hope that’s helpful. And yes, I can understand you perfectly well 🙂
Cheers,
Eugen.

Hugo Miguel Silva
Guest
Hugo Miguel Silva

Hello Eugen, thank for your response, I understood but I can’t put this working. Can you check my code (via teamviewer for example) and discuss the problem on live? Sorry for the mess, i really a little help.
Cheers

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

Hey Miguel,
I’m not available to do consulting work right now. I’m primarily focused on the courses and the other material we’re putting out, which leaves no time for these engagements.
Cheers,
Eugen.

Duke
Guest
Duke

Hi,
thanks for the good tutorial.
I am facing one issue:
while querying, its adding the core name “preauth”twice:

Error 404 Not Found

HTTP ERROR 404
Problem accessing /solr/preauth/preauth/select. Reason:
Not Found

Please help me

Grzegorz Piwowarek
Guest
Grzegorz Piwowarek

Duke, it will be extremely hard to answer that without looking at the code. If you could push your code to GitHub and prepare a failing test case, it would be much easier to say anything

Duke
Guest
Duke

Grzegorz,
I am not allowed to push my code to github, but I can paste my code here:
Using spring-data-solr 2.1.0-RELEASE
and
SolrJ-6.4.0

My config class:
// edited out … far to much code

Grzegorz Piwowarek
Guest
Grzegorz Piwowarek

Well, do not push to our project. Create your own and push it there along with the whole setup.

Ingo
Guest
Ingo

Well, I’m actually facing the same problem right know. I also get a 404. First I had a SpringBoot 1.5.1 Application, but after facing the 404 problem, I just reverted everything to match exactly your sample project. Now the error is reproducible by just updating the spring-data-version to 2.1.0-RELEASE. Changed back to 2.0.5-RELEASE everything works.

Ingo
Guest
Ingo

Just checked the Spring JIRA: it seems to be a bug on this release: https://jira.spring.io/browse/DATASOLR-363

Grzegorz Piwowarek
Guest
Grzegorz Piwowarek

Well, that’s a shame. Thanks for the link

Sudheer
Guest
Sudheer

Hi,thanks for the excellent article. I’m trying to use named queries for searching on all fields. Is there any way to search something like @Query(” * : *?0*”) ? My Solr document object contains more than 10 fields.
Any help is appreciated.

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

Hey Sudheer,
First – I never tried to run that particular kind of query, so I’m not sure – you should reach out on the more official SOLR channels to ask.
One note here is – if you run into any Spring Data limitation, remember you can always use the raw client – there’s nothing that stops you from doing that. Spring Data is a great abstraction but that doesn’t mean you need to use it in 100% of your system.

Hope that points you in the right direction. Cheers,
Eugen.