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1. Overview

In this Spring Framework tutorial, we'll demonstrate how to use annotations related to dependency injection, namely the @Resource, @Inject, and @Autowired annotations. These annotations provide classes with a declarative way to resolve dependencies:

@Autowired 
ArbitraryClass arbObject;

As opposed to instantiating them directly (the imperative way):

ArbitraryClass arbObject = new ArbitraryClass();

Two of the three annotations belong to the Java extension package: javax.annotation.Resource and javax.inject.Inject. The @Autowired annotation belongs to the org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation package.

Each of these annotations can resolve dependencies either by field injection or by setter injection. We'll use a simplified, but practical example to demonstrate the distinction between the three annotations, based on the execution paths taken by each annotation.

The examples will focus on how to use the three injection annotations during integration testing. The dependency required by the test can either be an arbitrary file or an arbitrary class.

Further reading:

Constructor Dependency Injection in Spring

Quick and practical intro to Constructor based injection with Spring.

Intro to Inversion of Control and Dependency Injection with Spring

A quick introduction to the concepts of Inversion of Control and Dependency Injection, followed by a simple demonstration using the Spring Framework

Using @Autowired in Abstract Classes

Learn the differences of using @Autowired on abstract classes vs. concrete classes

2. The @Resource Annotation

The @Resource annotation is part of the JSR-250 annotation collection, and is packaged with Jakarta EE. This annotation has the following execution paths, listed by precedence:

  1. Match by Name
  2. Match by Type
  3. Match by Qualifier

These execution paths are applicable to both setter and field injection.

2.1. Field Injection

We can resolve dependencies by field injection by annotating an instance variable with the @Resource annotation.

2.1.1. Match by Name

We'll use the following integration test to demonstrate match-by-name field injection:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestResourceNameType.class)
public class FieldResourceInjectionIntegrationTest {

    @Resource(name="namedFile")
    private File defaultFile;

    @Test
    public void givenResourceAnnotation_WhenOnField_ThenDependencyValid(){
        assertNotNull(defaultFile);
        assertEquals("namedFile.txt", defaultFile.getName());
    }
}

Let's go through the code. In the FieldResourceInjectionTest integration test, at line 7, we resolved the dependency by name by passing in the bean name as an attribute value to the @Resource annotation:

@Resource(name="namedFile")
private File defaultFile;

This configuration will resolve dependencies using the match-by-name execution path. We must define the bean namedFile in the ApplicationContextTestResourceNameType application context.

Note that the bean id and the corresponding reference attribute value must match:

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextTestResourceNameType {

    @Bean(name="namedFile")
    public File namedFile() {
        File namedFile = new File("namedFile.txt");
        return namedFile;
    }
}

If we fail to define the bean in the application context, it will result in an org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException being thrown. We can demonstrate this by changing the attribute value passed into the @Bean annotation in the ApplicationContextTestResourceNameType application context, or changing the attribute value passed into the @Resource annotation in the FieldResourceInjectionTest integration test.

2.1.2. Match by Type

To demonstrate the match-by-type execution path, we just remove the attribute value at line 7 of the FieldResourceInjectionTest integration test:

@Resource
private File defaultFile;

Then we run the test again.

The test will still pass because if the @Resource annotation doesn't receive a bean name as an attribute value, the Spring Framework will proceed with the next level of precedence, match-by-type, in order to try resolve the dependency.

2.1.3. Match by Qualifier

To demonstrate the match-by-qualifier execution path, the integration testing scenario will be modified so that there are two beans defined in the ApplicationContextTestResourceQualifier application context:

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextTestResourceQualifier {

    @Bean(name="defaultFile")
    public File defaultFile() {
        File defaultFile = new File("defaultFile.txt");
        return defaultFile;
    }

    @Bean(name="namedFile")
    public File namedFile() {
        File namedFile = new File("namedFile.txt");
        return namedFile;
    }
}

We'll use the QualifierResourceInjectionTest integration test to demonstrate match-by-qualifier dependency resolution. In this scenario, a specific bean dependency needs to be injected into each reference variable:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestResourceQualifier.class)
public class QualifierResourceInjectionIntegrationTest {

    @Resource
    private File dependency1;
	
    @Resource
    private File dependency2;

    @Test
    public void givenResourceAnnotation_WhenField_ThenDependency1Valid(){
        assertNotNull(dependency1);
        assertEquals("defaultFile.txt", dependency1.getName());
    }

    @Test
    public void givenResourceQualifier_WhenField_ThenDependency2Valid(){
        assertNotNull(dependency2);
        assertEquals("namedFile.txt", dependency2.getName());
    }
}

When we run the integration test, an org.springframework.beans.factory.NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException will be thrown. This will happen because the application context will find two bean definitions of type File, and won't know which bean should resolve the dependency.

To resolve this issue, we need to refer to line 7 to line 10 of the QualifierResourceInjectionTest integration test:

@Resource
private File dependency1;

@Resource
private File dependency2;

We have to add the following lines of code:

@Qualifier("defaultFile")

@Qualifier("namedFile")

So that the code block looks as follows:

@Resource
@Qualifier("defaultFile")
private File dependency1;

@Resource
@Qualifier("namedFile")
private File dependency2;

When we run the integration test again, it should pass. Our test demonstrates that even if we define multiple beans in an application context, we can use the @Qualifier annotation to clear any confusion by allowing us to inject specific dependencies into a class.

2.2. Setter Injection

The execution paths taken when injecting dependencies on a field are applicable to setter-based injection as well.

2.2.1. Match by Name

The only difference is the MethodResourceInjectionTest integration test has a setter method:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestResourceNameType.class)
public class MethodResourceInjectionIntegrationTest {

    private File defaultFile;

    @Resource(name="namedFile")
    protected void setDefaultFile(File defaultFile) {
        this.defaultFile = defaultFile;
    }

    @Test
    public void givenResourceAnnotation_WhenSetter_ThenDependencyValid(){
        assertNotNull(defaultFile);
        assertEquals("namedFile.txt", defaultFile.getName());
    }
}

We resolve dependencies by setter injection by annotating a reference variable's corresponding setter method. Then we pass the name of the bean dependency as an attribute value to the @Resource annotation:

private File defaultFile;

@Resource(name="namedFile")
protected void setDefaultFile(File defaultFile) {
    this.defaultFile = defaultFile;
}

We'll reuse the namedFile bean dependency in this example. The bean name and the corresponding attribute value must match.

When we run the integration test, it will pass.

In order for us to verify that the match-by-name execution path resolved the dependency, we need to change the attribute value passed to the @Resource annotation to a value of our choice and run the test again. This time, the test will fail with a NoSuchBeanDefinitionException.

2.2.2. Match by Type

To demonstrate setter-based, match-by-type execution, we will use the MethodByTypeResourceTest integration test:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestResourceNameType.class)
public class MethodByTypeResourceIntegrationTest {

    private File defaultFile;

    @Resource
    protected void setDefaultFile(File defaultFile) {
        this.defaultFile = defaultFile;
    }

    @Test
    public void givenResourceAnnotation_WhenSetter_ThenValidDependency(){
        assertNotNull(defaultFile);
        assertEquals("namedFile.txt", defaultFile.getName());
    }
}

When we run this test, it will pass.

In order for us to verify that the match-by-type execution path resolved the File dependency, we need to change the class type of the defaultFile variable to another class type like String. Then we can execute the MethodByTypeResourceTest integration test again, and this time a NoSuchBeanDefinitionException will be thrown.

The exception verifies that match-by-type was indeed used to resolve the File dependency. The NoSuchBeanDefinitionException confirms that the reference variable name doesn't need to match the bean name. Instead, dependency resolution depends on the bean's class type matching the reference variable's class type.

2.2.3. Match by Qualifier

We will use the MethodByQualifierResourceTest integration test to demonstrate the match-by-qualifier execution path:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestResourceQualifier.class)
public class MethodByQualifierResourceIntegrationTest {

    private File arbDependency;
    private File anotherArbDependency;

    @Test
    public void givenResourceQualifier_WhenSetter_ThenValidDependencies(){
      assertNotNull(arbDependency);
        assertEquals("namedFile.txt", arbDependency.getName());
        assertNotNull(anotherArbDependency);
        assertEquals("defaultFile.txt", anotherArbDependency.getName());
    }

    @Resource
    @Qualifier("namedFile")
    public void setArbDependency(File arbDependency) {
        this.arbDependency = arbDependency;
    }

    @Resource
    @Qualifier("defaultFile")
    public void setAnotherArbDependency(File anotherArbDependency) {
        this.anotherArbDependency = anotherArbDependency;
    }
}

Our test demonstrates that even if we define multiple bean implementations of a particular type in an application context, we can use a @Qualifier annotation together with the @Resource annotation to resolve a dependency.

Similar to field-based dependency injection, if we define multiple beans in an application context, we must use a @Qualifier annotation to specify which bean to use to resolve dependencies, or a NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException will be thrown.

3. The @Inject Annotation

The @Inject annotation belongs to the JSR-330 annotations collection. This annotation has the following execution paths, listed by precedence:

  1. Match by Type
  2. Match by Qualifier
  3. Match by Name

These execution paths are applicable to both setter and field injection. In order for us to access the @Inject annotation, we have to declare the javax.inject library as a Gradle or Maven dependency.

For Gradle:

testCompile group: 'javax.inject', name: 'javax.inject', version: '1'

For Maven:

<dependency>
    <groupId>javax.inject</groupId>
    <artifactId>javax.inject</artifactId>
    <version>1</version>
</dependency>

3.1. Field Injection

3.1.1. Match by Type

We'll modify the integration test example to use another type of dependency, namely the ArbitraryDependency class. The ArbitraryDependency class dependency merely serves as a simple dependency and holds no further significance:

@Component
public class ArbitraryDependency {

    private final String label = "Arbitrary Dependency";

    public String toString() {
        return label;
    }
}

Here's the FieldInjectTest integration test in question:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestInjectType.class)
public class FieldInjectIntegrationTest {

    @Inject
    private ArbitraryDependency fieldInjectDependency;

    @Test
    public void givenInjectAnnotation_WhenOnField_ThenValidDependency(){
        assertNotNull(fieldInjectDependency);
        assertEquals("Arbitrary Dependency",
          fieldInjectDependency.toString());
    }
}

Unlike the @Resource annotation, which resolves dependencies by name first, the default behavior of the @Inject annotation is to resolve dependencies by type.

This means that even if the class reference variable name differs from the bean name, the dependency will still be resolved, provided that the bean is defined in the application context. Note how the reference variable name in the following test:

@Inject
private ArbitraryDependency fieldInjectDependency;

differs from the bean name configured in the application context:

@Bean
public ArbitraryDependency injectDependency() {
    ArbitraryDependency injectDependency = new ArbitraryDependency();
    return injectDependency;
}

When we execute the test, we're able to resolve the dependency.

3.1.2. Match by Qualifier

What if there are multiple implementations of a particular class type, and a certain class requires a specific bean? Let's modify the integration testing example so that it requires another dependency.

In this example, we subclass the ArbitraryDependency class, used in the match-by-type example, to create the AnotherArbitraryDependency class:

public class AnotherArbitraryDependency extends ArbitraryDependency {

    private final String label = "Another Arbitrary Dependency";

    public String toString() {
        return label;
    }
}

The objective of each test case is to ensure that we inject each dependency correctly into each reference variable:

@Inject
private ArbitraryDependency defaultDependency;

@Inject
private ArbitraryDependency namedDependency;

We can use the FieldQualifierInjectTest integration test to demonstrate match by qualifier:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestInjectQualifier.class)
public class FieldQualifierInjectIntegrationTest {

    @Inject
    private ArbitraryDependency defaultDependency;

    @Inject
    private ArbitraryDependency namedDependency;

    @Test
    public void givenInjectQualifier_WhenOnField_ThenDefaultFileValid(){
        assertNotNull(defaultDependency);
        assertEquals("Arbitrary Dependency",
          defaultDependency.toString());
    }

    @Test
    public void givenInjectQualifier_WhenOnField_ThenNamedFileValid(){
        assertNotNull(defaultDependency);
        assertEquals("Another Arbitrary Dependency",
          namedDependency.toString());
    }
}

If we have multiple implementations of a particular class in an application context, and the FieldQualifierInjectTest integration test attempts to inject the dependencies in the manner listed below, a NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException will be thrown:

@Inject 
private ArbitraryDependency defaultDependency;

@Inject 
private ArbitraryDependency namedDependency;

Throwing this exception is the Spring Framework's way of pointing out that there are multiple implementations of a certain class and it is confused about which one to use. In order to elucidate the confusion, we can go to line 7 and 10 of the FieldQualifierInjectTest integration test:

@Inject
private ArbitraryDependency defaultDependency;

@Inject
private ArbitraryDependency namedDependency;

We can pass the required bean name to the @Qualifier annotation, which we use together with the @Inject annotation. This is how the code block will now look:

@Inject
@Qualifier("defaultFile")
private ArbitraryDependency defaultDependency;

@Inject
@Qualifier("namedFile")
private ArbitraryDependency namedDependency;

The @Qualifier annotation expects a strict match when receiving a bean name. We must ensure that the bean name is passed to the Qualifier correctly, otherwise, a NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException will be thrown. If we run the test again, it should pass.

3.1.3. Match by Name

The FieldByNameInjectTest integration test used to demonstrate match by name is similar to the match by type execution path. The only difference is now we require a specific bean, as opposed to a specific type. In this example, we subclass the ArbitraryDependency class again to produce the YetAnotherArbitraryDependency class:

public class YetAnotherArbitraryDependency extends ArbitraryDependency {

    private final String label = "Yet Another Arbitrary Dependency";

    public String toString() {
        return label;
    }
}

In order to demonstrate the match-by-name execution path, we will use the following integration test:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestInjectName.class)
public class FieldByNameInjectIntegrationTest {

    @Inject
    @Named("yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency")
    private ArbitraryDependency yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency;

    @Test
    public void givenInjectQualifier_WhenSetOnField_ThenDependencyValid(){
        assertNotNull(yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency);
        assertEquals("Yet Another Arbitrary Dependency",
          yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency.toString());
    }
}

We list the application context:

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextTestInjectName {

    @Bean
    public ArbitraryDependency yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency() {
        ArbitraryDependency yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency =
          new YetAnotherArbitraryDependency();
        return yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency;
    }
}

If we run the integration test, it will pass.

In order to verify that we injected the dependency by the match-by-name execution path, we need to change the value, yetAnotherFieldInjectDependency, that was passed in to the @Named annotation to another name of our choice. When we run the test again, a NoSuchBeanDefinitionException will be thrown.

3.2. Setter Injection

Setter-based injection for the @Inject annotation is similar to the approach used for the @Resource setter-based injection. Instead of annotating the reference variable, we annotate the corresponding setter method. The execution paths followed by field-based dependency injection also apply to setter based injection.

4. The @Autowired Annotation

The behaviour of the @Autowired annotation is similar to the @Inject annotation. The only difference is that the @Autowired annotation is part of the Spring framework. This annotation has the same execution paths as the @Inject annotation, listed in order of precedence:

  1. Match by Type
  2. Match by Qualifier
  3. Match by Name

These execution paths are applicable to both setter and field injection.

4.1. Field Injection

4.1.1. Match by Type

The integration testing example used to demonstrate the @Autowired match-by-type execution path will be similar to the test used to demonstrate the @Inject match-by-type execution path. We use the following FieldAutowiredTest integration test to demonstrate match-by-type using the @Autowired annotation:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestAutowiredType.class)
public class FieldAutowiredIntegrationTest {

    @Autowired
    private ArbitraryDependency fieldDependency;

    @Test
    public void givenAutowired_WhenSetOnField_ThenDependencyResolved() {
        assertNotNull(fieldDependency);
        assertEquals("Arbitrary Dependency", fieldDependency.toString());
    }
}

We list the application context for this integration test:

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextTestAutowiredType {

    @Bean
    public ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency() {
        ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency =
          new ArbitraryDependency();
        return autowiredFieldDependency;
    }
}

We use this integration test to demonstrate that match-by-type takes first precedence over the other execution paths. Notice the reference variable name on line 8 of the FieldAutowiredTest integration test:

@Autowired
private ArbitraryDependency fieldDependency;

This is different than the bean name in the application context:

@Bean
public ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency() {
    ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency =
      new ArbitraryDependency();
    return autowiredFieldDependency;
}

When we run the test, it should pass.

In order to confirm that the dependency was indeed resolved using the match-by-type execution path, we need to change the type of the fieldDependency reference variable and run the integration test again. This time, the FieldAutowiredTest integration test will fail, with a NoSuchBeanDefinitionException being thrown. This verifies that we used match-by-type to resolve the dependency.

4.1.2. Match by Qualifier

What if we're faced with a situation where we've defined multiple bean implementations in the application context:

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextTestAutowiredQualifier {

    @Bean
    public ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency() {
        ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency =
          new ArbitraryDependency();
        return autowiredFieldDependency;
    }

    @Bean
    public ArbitraryDependency anotherAutowiredFieldDependency() {
        ArbitraryDependency anotherAutowiredFieldDependency =
          new AnotherArbitraryDependency();
        return anotherAutowiredFieldDependency;
    }
}

If we execute the following FieldQualifierAutowiredTest integration test, a NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException will be thrown:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestAutowiredQualifier.class)
public class FieldQualifierAutowiredIntegrationTest {

    @Autowired
    private ArbitraryDependency fieldDependency1;

    @Autowired
    private ArbitraryDependency fieldDependency2;

    @Test
    public void givenAutowiredQualifier_WhenOnField_ThenDep1Valid(){
        assertNotNull(fieldDependency1);
        assertEquals("Arbitrary Dependency", fieldDependency1.toString());
    }

    @Test
    public void givenAutowiredQualifier_WhenOnField_ThenDep2Valid(){
        assertNotNull(fieldDependency2);
        assertEquals("Another Arbitrary Dependency",
          fieldDependency2.toString());
    }
}

The exception is due to the ambiguity caused by the two beans defined in the application context. The Spring Framework doesn't know which bean dependency should be autowired to which reference variable. We can resolve this issue by adding the @Qualifier annotation to lines 7 and 10 of the FieldQualifierAutowiredTest integration test:

@Autowired
private FieldDependency fieldDependency1;

@Autowired
private FieldDependency fieldDependency2;

so that the code block looks as follows:

@Autowired
@Qualifier("autowiredFieldDependency")
private FieldDependency fieldDependency1;

@Autowired
@Qualifier("anotherAutowiredFieldDependency")
private FieldDependency fieldDependency2;

When we run the test again, it will pass.

4.1.3. Match by Name

We'll use the same integration test scenario to demonstrate the match-by-name execution path using the @Autowired annotation to inject a field dependency. When autowiring dependencies by name, the @ComponentScan annotation must be used with the application context, ApplicationContextTestAutowiredName:

@Configuration
@ComponentScan(basePackages={"com.baeldung.dependency"})
    public class ApplicationContextTestAutowiredName {
}

We use the @ComponentScan annotation to search packages for Java classes that have been annotated with the @Component annotation. For example, in the application context, the com.baeldung.dependency package will be scanned for classes that have been annotated with the @Component annotation. In this scenario, the Spring Framework must detect the ArbitraryDependency class, which has the @Component annotation:

@Component(value="autowiredFieldDependency")
public class ArbitraryDependency {

    private final String label = "Arbitrary Dependency";

    public String toString() {
        return label;
    }
}

The attribute value, autowiredFieldDependency, passed into the @Component annotation, tells the Spring Framework that the ArbitraryDependency class is a component named autowiredFieldDependency. In order for the @Autowired annotation to resolve dependencies by name, the component name must correspond with the field name defined in the FieldAutowiredNameTest integration test; please refer to line 8:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(
  loader=AnnotationConfigContextLoader.class,
  classes=ApplicationContextTestAutowiredName.class)
public class FieldAutowiredNameIntegrationTest {

    @Autowired
    private ArbitraryDependency autowiredFieldDependency;

    @Test
    public void givenAutowiredAnnotation_WhenOnField_ThenDepValid(){
        assertNotNull(autowiredFieldDependency);
        assertEquals("Arbitrary Dependency",
          autowiredFieldDependency.toString());
	}
}

When we run the FieldAutowiredNameTest integration test, it will pass.

But how do we know that the @Autowired annotation really did invoke the match-by-name execution path? We can change the name of the reference variable autowiredFieldDependency to another name of our choice, then run the test again.

This time, the test will fail and a NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException is thrown. A similar check would be to change the @Component attribute value, autowiredFieldDependency, to another value of our choice and run the test again. A NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException will also be thrown.

This exception is proof that if we use an incorrect bean name, no valid bean will be found. That's how we know the match-by-name execution path was invoked.

4.2. Setter Injection

Setter-based injection for the @Autowired annotation is similar to the approach demonstrated for the @Resource setter-based injection. Instead of annotating the reference variable with the @Inject annotation, we annotate the corresponding setter. The execution paths followed by field-based dependency injection also apply to setter-based injection.

5. Applying These Annotations

This raises the question of which annotation should be used and under what circumstances. The answer to these questions depends on the design scenario faced by the application in question, and how the developer wishes to leverage polymorphism based on the default execution paths of each annotation.

5.1. Application-Wide Use of Singletons Through Polymorphism

If the design is such that application behaviors are based on implementations of an interface or an abstract class, and these behaviors are used throughout the application, then we can use either the @Inject or @Autowired annotation.

The benefit of this approach is that when we upgrade the application, or apply a patch in order to fix a bug, classes can be swapped out with minimal negative impact to the overall application behavior. In this scenario, the primary default execution path is match-by-type.

5.2. Fine-Grained Application Behavior Configuration Through Polymorphism

If the design is such that the application has complex behavior, each behavior is based on different interfaces/abstract classes, and the usage of each of these implementations varies across the application, then we can use the @Resource annotation. In this scenario, the primary default execution path is match-by-name.

5.3. Dependency Injection Should Be Handled Solely by the Jakarta EE Platform

If there is a design mandate for all dependencies to be injected by the Jakarta EE Platform as opposed to Spring, then the choice is between the @Resource annotation and the @Inject annotation. We should narrow down the final decision between the two annotations based on which default execution path is required.

5.4. Dependency Injection Should Be Handled Solely by the Spring Framework

If the mandate is for all dependencies to be handled by the Spring Framework, the only choice is the @Autowired annotation.

5.5. Discussion Summary

The table below summarizes our discussion.

Scenario @Resource @Inject @Autowired
Application-wide use of singletons through polymorphism
Fine-grained application behavior configuration through polymorphism
Dependency injection should be handled solely by the Jakarta EE platform
Dependency injection should be handled solely by the Spring Framework

6. Conclusion

In this article, we aimed to provide a deeper insight into the behavior of each annotation. Understanding how each annotation behaves will contribute to better overall application design and maintenance.

The code used during the discussion can be found on GitHub.

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