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1. Introduction

In this quick article, we’ll show how to integrate Mockito with the JUnit 5 extension model. To learn more about the JUnit 5 extension model, have a look at this article.

First, we’ll show how to create an extension that automatically creates mock objects for any class attribute or method parameter annotated with @Mock.

Then, we’ll use our Mockito extension in a JUnit 5 test class.

2. Maven Dependencies

2.1. Required Dependencies

Let’s add the JUnit 5 (jupiter) and mockito dependencies to our pom.xml:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.junit.jupiter</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit-jupiter-engine</artifactId>
    <version>5.3.1</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.mockito</groupId>
    <artifactId>mockito-core</artifactId>
    <version>2.21.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Note that junit-jupiter-engine is the main JUnit 5 library, and junit-platform-launcher is used with the Maven plugin and IDE launcher.

2.2. Surefire Plugin

Let’s also configure the Maven Surefire plugin to run our test classes using the new JUnit platform launcher:

<plugin>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>2.19.1</version>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
             <groupId>org.junit.platform</groupId>
             <artifactId>junit-platform-surefire-provider</artifactId>
             <version>1.0.1</version>
         </dependency>
     </dependencies>
</plugin>

2.3. JUnit 4 IDE Compatibility Dependencies

For our test cases to be JUnit4 (vintage) compatible, for IDEs that have no support for JUnit 5 yet, let’s include these dependencies:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.junit.platform</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit-platform-runner</artifactId>
    <version>1.2.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
     <groupId>org.junit.vintage</groupId>
     <artifactId>junit-vintage-engine</artifactId>
     <version>5.2.0</version>
     <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Also, we should consider annotating all our test classes with @RunWith(JUnitPlatform.class)

The latest versions of junit-jupiter-enginejunit-vintage-enginejunit-platform-launcher, and mockito-core can be downloaded from Maven Central.

3. Mockito Extension

Mockito provides an implementation for JUnit5 extensions in the library – mockito-junit-jupiter. We’ll include this dependency in our pom.xml:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.mockito</groupId>
    <artifactId>mockito-junit-jupiter</artifactId>
    <version>2.23.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

4. Building the Test Class

Let’s build our test class and attach the Mockito extension to it:

@ExtendWith(MockitoExtension.class)
@RunWith(JUnitPlatform.class)
public class UserServiceUnitTest {

    UserService userService;

... //
}

We can use the @Mock annotation to inject a mock for an instance variable that we can use anywhere in the test class:

@Mock UserRepository userRepository;

Also, we can inject mock objects into method parameters:

@BeforeEach
void init(@Mock SettingRepository settingRepository) {
    userService = new DefaultUserService(userRepository, settingRepository, mailClient);
      
    Mockito.lenient().when(settingRepository.getUserMinAge()).thenReturn(10);
        
    when(settingRepository.getUserNameMinLength()).thenReturn(4);
        
    Mockito.lenient().when(userRepository.isUsernameAlreadyExists(any(String.class))).thenReturn(false);
}

Please note the use of Mockito.lenient() here. Mockito throws an UnsupportedStubbingException, when an initialised mock is not called by one of the test methods during execution. We can avoid this strict stub checking by using this method when initialising the mocks.

We can even inject a mock object into a test method parameter:

@Test
void givenValidUser_whenSaveUser_thenSucceed(@Mock MailClient mailClient) {
    // Given
    user = new User("Jerry", 12);
    when(userRepository.insert(any(User.class))).then(new Answer<User>() {
        int sequence = 1;
            
        @Override
        public User answer(InvocationOnMock invocation) throws Throwable {
            User user = (User) invocation.getArgument(0);
            user.setId(sequence++);
            return user;
        }
    });

    userService = new DefaultUserService(userRepository, settingRepository, mailClient);

    // When
    User insertedUser = userService.register(user);
        
    // Then
    verify(userRepository).insert(user);
    Assertions.assertNotNull(user.getId());
    verify(mailClient).sendUserRegistrationMail(insertedUser);
}

Note that the MailClient mock that we inject as a test parameter will NOT be the same instance that we injected in the init method.

5. Conclusion

Junit 5 has provided a nice model for extension. We demonstrated a simple Mockito extension that simplified our mock creation logic.

All the code used in this article can be found in the com.baeldung.junit5.mockito package of the GitHub project, along with a few additional unit test methods.

I just announced the new Spring Boot 2 material, coming in REST With Spring:

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