## 1. Overview

In this tutorial, we'll implement a Basic Calculator in Java supporting addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operations.

We'll also take the operator and operands as inputs and process the calculations based on them.

## 2. Basic Setup

First, let's show some information about the calculator:

```
System.out.println("---------------------------------- \n" +
"Welcome to Basic Calculator \n" +
"----------------------------------");
System.out.println("Following operations are supported : \n" +
"1. Addition (+) \n" +
"2. Subtraction (-) \n" +
"3. Multiplication (*) \n" +
"4. Division (/) \n");
```

Now, let's use *java.util.Scanner* to take the user inputs:

```
Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
System.out.println("Enter an operator: (+ OR - OR * OR /) ");
char operation = scanner.next().charAt(0);
System.out.println("Enter the first number: ");
double num1 = scanner.nextDouble();
System.out.println("Enter the second number: ");
double num2 = scanner.nextDouble();
```

As we are taking inputs into the system, we need to validate them. For example, if the operator is not +, -, * or /, then our calculator should call out the bad input. Similarly, if we enter the second number as 0 for division operation, the results will not be good.

So, let's implement these validations.

First, let's focus on the situation when the operator is invalid:

```
if (!(operation == '+' || operation == '-' || operation == '*' || operation == '/')) {
System.err.println("Invalid Operator. Please use only + or - or * or /");
}
```

Then we can show errors for invalid operations:

```
if (operation == '/' && num2 == 0.0) {
System.err.println("The second number cannot be zero for division operation.");
}
```

The user inputs are first validated. After that, the calculation result will be displayed as:

<number1> <operation> <number2> = <result>

## 3. Processing Calculations

Firstly, we can use an *if-else* construct to process calculations

```
if (operation == '+') {
System.out.println(num1 + " + " + num2 + " = " + (num1 + num2));
} else if (operation == '-') {
System.out.println(num1 + " - " + num2 + " = " + (num1 - num2));
} else if (operation == '*') {
System.out.println(num1 + " x " + num2 + " = " + (num1 * num2));
} else if (operation == '/') {
System.out.println(num1 + " / " + num2 + " = " + (num1 / num2));
} else {
System.err.println("Invalid Operator Specified.");
}
```

Similarly, we can use a Java *switch* statement:

```
switch (operation) {
case '+':
System.out.println(num1 + " + " + num2 + " = " + (num1 + num2));
break;
case '-':
System.out.println(num1 + " - " + num2 + " = " + (num1 - num2));
break;
case '*':
System.out.println(num1 + " x " + num2 + " = " + (num1 * num2));
break;
case '/':
System.out.println(num1 + " / " + num2 + " = " + (num1 / num2));
break;
default:
System.err.println("Invalid Operator Specified.");
break;
}
```

We can use a variable to store the calculation results. As a result, it can be printed at the end. In this case, *System.out.println* will be used only once.

Also, the maximum range for the calculations is 2147483647. Consequently, if we exceed it, we'll overflow from an *int* data type. Therefore, it should be stored in a variable of a bigger data type, for example, a *double* data type.

## 4. Conclusion

In this tutorial, we implemented a Basic Calculator in Java, using two different constructs. We also made sure the inputs are validated before processing them further.

As always, the code is available over on GitHub.

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