Partner – Microsoft – NPI (cat= Spring)
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Azure Spring Apps is a fully managed service from Microsoft (built in collaboration with VMware), focused on building and deploying Spring Boot applications on Azure Cloud without worrying about Kubernetes.

And, the Enterprise plan comes with some interesting features, such as commercial Spring runtime support, a 99.95% SLA and some deep discounts (up to 47%) when you are ready for production.

>> Learn more and deploy your first Spring Boot app to Azure.

You can also ask questions and leave feedback on the Azure Spring Apps GitHub page.

Partner – Payara – NPI (cat=Jakarta EE)
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Can Jakarta EE be used to develop microservices? The answer is a resounding ‘yes’!

>> Demystifying Microservices for Jakarta EE & Java EE Developers

1. Introduction

The Interceptor pattern is generally used to add new, cross-cutting functionality or logic in an application, and has solid support in a large number of libraries.

In this article, we’ll cover and contrast two of these major libraries: CDI interceptors and Spring AspectJ.

2. CDI Interceptor Project Setup

CDI is officially supported for Jakarta EE but some implementations provide support to use CDI in Java SE environment. Weld can be considered as one example of CDI implementation which is supported in Java SE.

In order to use CDI we need to import the Weld library in our POM:


The most recent Weld library can be found in the Maven repository.

Let’s now create a simple interceptor.

3. Introducing the CDI Interceptor

In order to designate classes we needed to intercept, let’s create the interceptor binding:

@Target( { METHOD, TYPE } )
@Retention( RUNTIME )
public @interface Audited {

After we’ve defined the interceptor binding we need to define the actual interceptor implementation:

public class AuditedInterceptor {
    public static boolean calledBefore = false;
    public static boolean calledAfter = false;

    public Object auditMethod(InvocationContext ctx) throws Exception {
        calledBefore = true;
        Object result = ctx.proceed();
        calledAfter = true;
        return result;

Every @AroundInvoke method takes a javax.interceptor.InvocationContext argument, returns a java.lang.Object, and can throw an Exception.

And so, when we annotate a method with the new @Audit interface, auditMethod will be invoked first, and only then the target method proceeds as well.

4. Apply the CDI Interceptor

Let’s apply the created interceptor on some business logic:

public class SuperService {
    public String deliverService(String uid) {
        return uid;

We’ve created this simple service and annotated the method we wanted to intercept with the @Audited annotation.

To enable the CDI interceptor one need to specify the full class name in the beans.xml file, located in the META-INF directory:

<beans xmlns=""

To validate that interceptor has indeed worked let’s now run the following test:

public class TestInterceptor {
    Weld weld;
    WeldContainer container;

    public void init() {
        weld = new Weld();
        container = weld.initialize();

    public void shutdown() {

    public void givenTheService_whenMethodAndInterceptorExecuted_thenOK() {
        SuperService superService =;
        String code = "123456";

In this quick test, we first get the bean SuperService from the container, then invoke business method deliverService on it and check that interceptor AuditedInterceptor was actually called by validating its state variables.

Also we have @Before and @After annotated methods in which we initialize and shutdown Weld container respectively.

5. CDI Considerations

We can point out the following advantages of CDI interceptors:

  • It is a standard feature of Jakarta EE specification
  • Some CDI implementations libraries can be used in Java SE
  • Can be used when our project has severe limitations on third-party libraries

The disadvantages of the CDI interceptors are the following:

  • Tight coupling between class with business logic and interceptor
  • Hard to see which classes are intercepted in the project
  • Lack of flexible mechanism to apply interceptors to a group of methods

6. Spring AspectJ

Spring supports a similar implementation of interceptor functionality using AspectJ syntax as well.

First we need to add the following Spring and AspectJ dependencies to POM:


The most recent versions of Spring context, aspectjweaver can be found in the Maven repository.

We can now create a simple aspect using AspectJ annotation syntax:

public class SpringTestAspect {
    private List accumulator;

    @Around("execution(* com.baeldung.spring.service.SpringSuperService.*(..))")
    public Object auditMethod(ProceedingJoinPoint jp) throws Throwable {
        String methodName = jp.getSignature().getName();
        accumulator.add("Call to " + methodName);
        Object obj = jp.proceed();
        accumulator.add("Method called successfully: " + methodName);
        return obj;

We created an aspect which applies to all the methods of SpringSuperService class – which, for simplicity, looks like this:

public class SpringSuperService {
    public String getInfoFromService(String code) {
        return code;

7. Spring AspectJ Aspect Apply

In order to validate that aspect really applies to the service, let’s write the following unit test:

@ContextConfiguration(classes = { AppConfig.class })
public class TestSpringInterceptor {
    SpringSuperService springSuperService;

    private List accumulator;

    public void givenService_whenServiceAndAspectExecuted_thenOk() {
        String code = "123456";
        String result = springSuperService.getInfoFromService(code);
        Assert.assertThat(accumulator.size(), is(2));
        Assert.assertThat(accumulator.get(0), is("Call to getInfoFromService"));
        Assert.assertThat(accumulator.get(1), is("Method called successfully: getInfoFromService"));

In this test we inject our service, call the method and check the result.

Here’s what the configuration looks like:

public class AppConfig {
    public SpringSuperService springSuperService() {
        return new SpringSuperService();

    public SpringTestAspect springTestAspect() {
        return new SpringTestAspect();

    public List getAccumulator() {
        return new ArrayList();

One important aspect here in the @EnableAspectJAutoProxy annotation – which enables support for handling components marked with AspectJ’s @Aspect annotation, similar to functionality found in Spring’s XML element.

8. Spring AspectJ Considerations

Let’s point out a few of the advantages of using Spring AspectJ:

  • Interceptors are decoupled from the business logic
  • Interceptors can benefit from dependency injection
  • Interceptor has all the configuration information in itself
  • Adding new interceptors wouldn’t require augmenting existing code
  • Interceptor has flexible mechanism to choose which methods to intercept
  • Can be used without Jakarta EE

And of course a few of the disadvantages:

  • You need to know the AspectJ syntax to develop interceptors
  • The Learning curve for the AspectJ interceptors is higher than for the CDI interceptors

9. CDI Interceptor vs Spring AspectJ

If your current project uses Spring then considering Spring AspectJ is a good choice.

If you are using a full-blown application server, or your project doesn’t use Spring (or other frameworks eg Google Guice) and is strictly Jakarta EE then there is nothing left than to choose the CDI interceptor.

10. Conclusion

In this article we have covered two implementations of interceptor pattern: CDI interceptor and Spring AspectJ. We have covered advantages and disadvantages each of them.

The source code for examples of this article can be found in our repository on GitHub.

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