Security Top

I just announced the new Learn Spring Security course, including the full material focused on the new OAuth2 stack in Spring Security 5:

>> CHECK OUT THE COURSE

1. Overview

In this tutorial, we'll secure a REST API with OAuth2 and consume it from a simple Angular client.

The application we're going to build out will consist of three separate modules:

  • Authorization Server
  • Resource Server
  • UI authorization code: a front-end application using the Authorization Code Flow

We'll use the OAuth stack in Spring Security 5. If you want to use the Spring Security OAuth legacy stack, have a look at this previous article: Spring REST API + OAuth2 + Angular (Using the Spring Security OAuth Legacy Stack).

Further reading:

Using JWT with Spring Security OAuth

A guide to using JWT tokens with Spring Security 5.

OAuth2.0 and Dynamic Client Registration (using the Spring Security OAuth legacy stack)

Learn how to define clients dynamically with Spring Security and OAuth2.

Let's jump right in.

2. The OAuth2 Authorization Server (AS)

Simply put, an Authorization Server is an application that issues tokens for authorization.

Previously, the Spring Security OAuth stack offered the possibility of setting up an Authorization Server as a Spring Application. But the project has been deprecated, mainly because OAuth is an open standard with many well-established providers such as Okta, Keycloak, and ForgeRock, to name a few.

Of these, we'll be using Keycloak. It's an open-source Identity and Access Management server administered by Red Hat, developed in Java, by JBoss. It supports not only OAuth2 but also other standard protocols such as OpenID Connect and SAML.

For this tutorial, we'll be setting up an embedded Keycloak server in a Spring Boot app.

3. The Resource Server (RS)

Now let's discuss the Resource Server; this is essentially the REST API, which we ultimately want to be able to consume.

3.1. Maven Configuration

Our Resource Server's pom is much the same as the previous Authorization Server pom, sans the Keycloak part and with an additional spring-boot-starter-oauth2-resource-server dependency:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-oauth2-resource-server</artifactId>
</dependency>

3.2. Security Configuration

Since we're using Spring Boot, we can define the minimal required configuration using Boot properties.

We'll do this in an application.yml file:

server: 
  port: 8081
  servlet: 
    context-path: /resource-server

spring:
  security:
    oauth2:
      resourceserver:
        jwt:
          issuer-uri: http://localhost:8083/auth/realms/baeldung
          jwk-set-uri: http://localhost:8083/auth/realms/baeldung/protocol/openid-connect/certs

Here, we specified that we'll use JWT tokens for authorization.

The jwk-set-uri property points to the URI containing the public key so that our Resource Server can verify the tokens' integrity. 

The issuer-uri property represents an additional security measure to validate the issuer of the tokens (which is the Authorization Server). However, adding this property also mandates that the Authorization Server should be running before we can start the Resource Server application.

Next, let's set up a security configuration for the API to secure endpoints:

@Configuration
public class SecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.cors()
            .and()
              .authorizeRequests()
                .antMatchers(HttpMethod.GET, "/user/info", "/api/foos/**")
                  .hasAuthority("SCOPE_read")
                .antMatchers(HttpMethod.POST, "/api/foos")
                  .hasAuthority("SCOPE_write")
                .anyRequest()
                  .authenticated()
            .and()
              .oauth2ResourceServer()
                .jwt();
    }
}

As we can see, for our GET methods, we only allow requests that have read scope. For the POST method, the requester needs to have a write authority in addition to read. However, for any other endpoint, the request should just be authenticated with any user.

Also, the oauth2ResourceServer() method specifies that this is a resource server, with jwt()-formatted tokens.

Another point to note here is the use of method cors() to allow Access-Control headers on the requests. This is especially important since we are dealing with an Angular client, and our requests are going to come from another origin URL.

3.4. The Model and Repository

Next, let's define a javax.persistence.Entity for our model, Foo:

@Entity
public class Foo {

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;

    private String name;
    
    // constructor, getters and setters
}

Then we need a repository of Foos. We'll use Spring's PagingAndSortingRepository:

public interface IFooRepository extends PagingAndSortingRepository<Foo, Long> {
}

3.4. The Service and Implementation

After that, we'll define and implement a simple service for our API:

public interface IFooService {
    Optional<Foo> findById(Long id);

    Foo save(Foo foo);
    
    Iterable<Foo> findAll();

}

@Service
public class FooServiceImpl implements IFooService {

    private IFooRepository fooRepository;

    public FooServiceImpl(IFooRepository fooRepository) {
        this.fooRepository = fooRepository;
    }

    @Override
    public Optional<Foo> findById(Long id) {
        return fooRepository.findById(id);
    }

    @Override
    public Foo save(Foo foo) {
        return fooRepository.save(foo);
    }

    @Override
    public Iterable<Foo> findAll() {
        return fooRepository.findAll();
    }
}

3.5. A Sample Controller

Now let's implement a simple controller exposing our Foo resource via a DTO:

@RestController
@RequestMapping(value = "/api/foos")
public class FooController {

    private IFooService fooService;

    public FooController(IFooService fooService) {
        this.fooService = fooService;
    }

    @CrossOrigin(origins = "http://localhost:8089")    
    @GetMapping(value = "/{id}")
    public FooDto findOne(@PathVariable Long id) {
        Foo entity = fooService.findById(id)
            .orElseThrow(() -> new ResponseStatusException(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND));
        return convertToDto(entity);
    }

    @GetMapping
    public Collection<FooDto> findAll() {
        Iterable<Foo> foos = this.fooService.findAll();
        List<FooDto> fooDtos = new ArrayList<>();
        foos.forEach(p -> fooDtos.add(convertToDto(p)));
        return fooDtos;
    }

    protected FooDto convertToDto(Foo entity) {
        FooDto dto = new FooDto(entity.getId(), entity.getName());

        return dto;
    }
}

Notice the use of @CrossOrigin above; this is the controller-level config we need to allow CORS from our Angular App running at the specified URL.

Here's our FooDto:

public class FooDto {
    private long id;
    private String name;
}

4. Front End — Setup

We're now going to look at a simple front-end Angular implementation for the client, which will access our REST API.

We'll first use Angular CLI to generate and manage our front-end modules.

First, we install node and npm, as Angular CLI is an npm tool.

Then we need to use the frontend-maven-plugin to build our Angular project using Maven:

<build>
    <plugins>
        <plugin>
            <groupId>com.github.eirslett</groupId>
            <artifactId>frontend-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>1.3</version>
            <configuration>
                <nodeVersion>v6.10.2</nodeVersion>
                <npmVersion>3.10.10</npmVersion>
                <workingDirectory>src/main/resources</workingDirectory>
            </configuration>
            <executions>
                <execution>
                    <id>install node and npm</id>
                    <goals>
                        <goal>install-node-and-npm</goal>
                    </goals>
                </execution>
                <execution>
                    <id>npm install</id>
                    <goals>
                        <goal>npm</goal>
                    </goals>
                </execution>
                <execution>
                    <id>npm run build</id>
                    <goals>
                        <goal>npm</goal>
                    </goals>
                    <configuration>
                        <arguments>run build</arguments>
                    </configuration>
                </execution>
            </executions>
        </plugin>
    </plugins>
</build>

And finally, generate a new Module using Angular CLI:

ng new oauthApp

In the following section, we will discuss the Angular app logic.

5. Authorization Code Flow Using Angular

We're going to use the OAuth2 Authorization Code flow here.

Our use case: The client app requests a code from the Authorization Server and is presented with a login page. Once a user provides their valid credentials and submits, the Authorization Server gives us the code. Then the front-end client uses it to acquire an access token.

5.1. Home Component

Lets' begin with our main component, the HomeComponent, where all the action starts:

@Component({
  selector: 'home-header',
  providers: [AppService],
  template: `<div class="container" >
    <button *ngIf="!isLoggedIn" class="btn btn-primary" (click)="login()" type="submit">
      Login</button>
    <div *ngIf="isLoggedIn" class="content">
      <span>Welcome !!</span>
      <a class="btn btn-default pull-right"(click)="logout()" href="#">Logout</a>
      <br/>
      <foo-details></foo-details>
    </div>
  </div>`
})
 
export class HomeComponent {
  public isLoggedIn = false;

  constructor(private _service: AppService) { }
 
  ngOnInit() {
    this.isLoggedIn = this._service.checkCredentials();    
    let i = window.location.href.indexOf('code');
    if(!this.isLoggedIn && i != -1) {
      this._service.retrieveToken(window.location.href.substring(i + 5));
    }
  }

  login() {
    window.location.href = 
      'http://localhost:8083/auth/realms/baeldung/protocol/openid-connect/auth?
         response_type=code&scope=openid%20write%20read&client_id=' + 
         this._service.clientId + '&redirect_uri='+ this._service.redirectUri;
    }
 
  logout() {
    this._service.logout();
  }
}

In the beginning, when the user is not logged in, only the login button appears. Upon clicking this button, the user is navigated to the AS's authorization URL where they key in username and password. After a successful login, the user is redirected back with the authorization code, and then we retrieve the access token using this code.

5.2. App Service

Now let's look at AppService — located at app.service.ts — which contains the logic for server interactions:

  • retrieveToken(): to obtain access token using authorization code
  • saveToken(): to save our access token in a cookie using ng2-cookies library
  • getResource(): to get a Foo object from server using its ID
  • checkCredentials(): to check if user is logged in or not
  • logout(): to delete access token cookie and log the user out
export class Foo {
  constructor(public id: number, public name: string) { }
} 

@Injectable()
export class AppService {
  public clientId = 'newClient';
  public redirectUri = 'http://localhost:8089/';

  constructor(private _http: HttpClient) { }

  retrieveToken(code) {
    let params = new URLSearchParams();   
    params.append('grant_type','authorization_code');
    params.append('client_id', this.clientId);
    params.append('client_secret', 'newClientSecret');
    params.append('redirect_uri', this.redirectUri);
    params.append('code',code);

    let headers = 
      new HttpHeaders({'Content-type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8'});
       
      this._http.post('http://localhost:8083/auth/realms/baeldung/protocol/openid-connect/token', 
        params.toString(), { headers: headers })
        .subscribe(
          data => this.saveToken(data),
          err => alert('Invalid Credentials')); 
  }

  saveToken(token) {
    var expireDate = new Date().getTime() + (1000 * token.expires_in);
    Cookie.set("access_token", token.access_token, expireDate);
    console.log('Obtained Access token');
    window.location.href = 'http://localhost:8089';
  }

  getResource(resourceUrl) : Observable<any> {
    var headers = new HttpHeaders({
      'Content-type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8', 
      'Authorization': 'Bearer '+Cookie.get('access_token')});
    return this._http.get(resourceUrl, { headers: headers })
                   .catch((error:any) => Observable.throw(error.json().error || 'Server error'));
  }

  checkCredentials() {
    return Cookie.check('access_token');
  } 

  logout() {
    Cookie.delete('access_token');
    window.location.reload();
  }
}

In the retrieveToken method, we use our client credentials and Basic Auth to send a POST to the /openid-connect/token endpoint to get the access token. The parameters are being sent in a URL-encoded format. After we obtain the access token, we store it in a cookie.

The cookie storage is especially important here because we're only using the cookie for storage purposes and not to drive the authentication process directly. This helps protect against Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks and vulnerabilities.

5.3. Foo Component

Finally, our FooComponent to display our Foo details:

@Component({
  selector: 'foo-details',
  providers: [AppService],  
  template: `<div class="container">
    <h1 class="col-sm-12">Foo Details</h1>
    <div class="col-sm-12">
        <label class="col-sm-3">ID</label> <span>{{foo.id}}</span>
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-12">
        <label class="col-sm-3">Name</label> <span>{{foo.name}}</span>
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-12">
        <button class="btn btn-primary" (click)="getFoo()" type="submit">New Foo</button>        
    </div>
  </div>`
})

export class FooComponent {
  public foo = new Foo(1,'sample foo');
  private foosUrl = 'http://localhost:8081/resource-server/api/foos/';  

  constructor(private _service:AppService) {}

  getFoo() {
    this._service.getResource(this.foosUrl+this.foo.id)
      .subscribe(
         data => this.foo = data,
         error =>  this.foo.name = 'Error');
    }
}

5.5. App Component

Our simple AppComponent to act as the root component:

@Component({
  selector: 'app-root',
  template: `<nav class="navbar navbar-default">
    <div class="container-fluid">
      <div class="navbar-header">
        <a class="navbar-brand" href="/">Spring Security Oauth - Authorization Code</a>
      </div>
    </div>
  </nav>
  <router-outlet></router-outlet>`
})

export class AppComponent { }

And the AppModule where we wrap all our components, services and routes:

@NgModule({
  declarations: [
    AppComponent,
    HomeComponent,
    FooComponent    
  ],
  imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    HttpClientModule,
    RouterModule.forRoot([
     { path: '', component: HomeComponent, pathMatch: 'full' }], {onSameUrlNavigation: 'reload'})
  ],
  providers: [],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})
export class AppModule { }

7. Run the Front End

1. To run any of our front-end modules, we need to build the app first:

mvn clean install

2. Then we need to navigate to our Angular app directory:

cd src/main/resources

3. Finally, we will start our app:

npm start

The server will start by default on port 4200; to change the port of any module, change:

"start": "ng serve"

in package.json; for example, to make it run on port 8089, add:

"start": "ng serve --port 8089"

8. Conclusion

In this article, we learned how to authorize our application using OAuth2.

The full implementation of this tutorial can be found in the GitHub project.

Security bottom

I just announced the new Learn Spring Security course, including the full material focused on the new OAuth2 stack in Spring Security 5:

>> CHECK OUT THE COURSE
100 Comments
Oldest
Newest
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Comments are closed on this article!