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1. Overview

This tutorial illustrates various uses of the standard static mock methods of the Mockito API.

As with other articles focused on the Mockito framework (like Mockito Verify or Mockito When/Then), the MyList class shown below will be used as the collaborator to be mocked in test cases:

public class MyList extends AbstractList<String> {
    @Override
    public String get(int index) {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public int size() {
        return 1;
    }
}

2. Simple Mocking

The simplest overloaded variant of the mock method is the one with a single parameter for the class to be mocked:

public static <T> T mock(Class<T> classToMock)

We will use this method to mock a class and set an expectation:

MyList listMock = mock(MyList.class);
when(listMock.add(anyString())).thenReturn(false);

Then execute a method on the mock:

boolean added = listMock.add(randomAlphabetic(6));

The following code confirms that the add method has been invoked on the mock, and that the invocation returns a value which matches the expectation we set before:

verify(listMock).add(anyString());
assertThat(added, is(false));

3. Mocking with Mock’s Name

In this section, we will cover another variant of the mock method which is provided with an argument specifying the name of the mock:

public static <T> T mock(Class<T> classToMock, String name)

Generally speaking, the name of a mock has nothing to do with working code, but may be helpful when it comes to debugging, where the mock’s name is used to track down verification errors.

To make sure that the provided name of a mock is included in the message of an exception thrown from an unsuccessful verification, we will rely on a JUnit implementation of the TestRule interface, called ExpectedException, and include it in a test class:

@Rule
public ExpectedException thrown = ExpectedException.none();

This rule will be used to handle exceptions thrown from test methods.

In the following code, we create a mock for the MyList class and name it myMock:

MyList listMock = mock(MyList.class, "myMock");

Afterwards, set an expectation on a method of the mock and execute it:

when(listMock.add(anyString())).thenReturn(false);
listMock.add(randomAlphabetic(6));

We will create an intentionally failed verification that should throw an exception with the message containing information about the mock. In order to do it, expectations on the exception need to be set first:

thrown.expect(TooLittleActualInvocations.class);
thrown.expectMessage(containsString("myMock.add"));

The following verification should fail and throw an exception matching what were expected:

verify(listMock, times(2)).add(anyString());

Here is the thrown exception’s message:

org.mockito.exceptions.verification.TooLittleActualInvocations:
myMock.add(<any>);
Wanted 2 times:
at com.baeldung.mockito.MockitoMockTest
  .whenUsingMockWithName_thenCorrect(MockitoMockTest.java:...)
but was 1 time:
at com.baeldung.mockito.MockitoMockTest
  .whenUsingMockWithName_thenCorrect(MockitoMockTest.java:...)

As we can see, the mock’s name has been included in the exception message, which will be useful to find the failure point in case of an unsuccessful verification.

4. Mocking with Answer

Here, we will demonstrate the use of a mock variant in which the strategy for the mock’s answers to interaction is configured at creation time. This mock method’s signature in the Mockito documentation looks like the following:

public static <T> T mock(Class<T> classToMock, Answer defaultAnswer)

Let’s start with the definition of an implementation of the Answer interface:

class CustomAnswer implements Answer<Boolean> {
    @Override
    public Boolean answer(InvocationOnMock invocation) throws Throwable {
        return false;
    }
}

The CustomAnswer class above is used for the generation of a mock:

MyList listMock = mock(MyList.class, new CustomAnswer());

If we do not set an expectation on a method, the default answer, which was configured by the CustomAnswer type, will come into play. In order to prove it, we will skip over the expectation setting step and jump to the method execution:

boolean added = listMock.add(randomAlphabetic(6));

The following verification and assertion confirm that the mock method with an Answer argument has worked as expected:

verify(listMock).add(anyString());
assertThat(added, is(false));

5. Mocking with MockSettings

The final mock method that is covered within this article is the variant with a parameter of the MockSettings type. This overloaded method is use to provide a non-standard mock.

There are several custom settings that are supported by methods of the MockSettings interface, such as registering a listener for method invocations on the current mock with invocationListeners, configuring serialization with serializable, specifying the instance to spy on with spiedInstance, configuring Mockito to attempt to use a constructor when instantiating a mock with useConstructor, and some others.

For the convenience, we will reuse the CustomAnswer class introduced in the previous section to create a MockSettings implementation that defines a default answer.

A MockSettings object is instantiated by a factory method as follows:

MockSettings customSettings = withSettings().defaultAnswer(new CustomAnswer());

That setting object will be used in the creation of a new mock:

MyList listMock = mock(MyList.class, customSettings);

Similar to the preceding section, we will invoke the add method of a MyList instance and verify that a mock method with a MockSettings argument works as it is meant to by using the following code snippet:

boolean added = listMock.add(randomAlphabetic(6));
verify(listMock).add(anyString());
assertThat(added, is(false));

6. Conclusion

This tutorial has covered the mock method of Mockito in detail. The implementation of these examples and code snippets can be found in a GitHub project.

I just announced the new Spring Boot 2 material, coming in REST With Spring:

>> CHECK OUT THE LESSONS