In the world of Linux operating systems, the root user holds unparalleled power and privileges. Root access allows us to make system-wide changes, install software, and modify crucial files and folders. However, it’s important to exercise caution and only use the root account when necessary. This is because it grants unrestricted access to the entire system. That’s why best practice involves limiting the use of the root account and relying on regular user accounts for everyday tasks.
In this tutorial, we’ll explore how to return from root login to user login within the shell environment in Linux.
2. Understanding Root and User Accounts
In Linux, the root user account, also known as the superuser or administrator, has unrestricted access to the system resources and files.
It has the power to execute any command and modify any file. This makes it an indispensable tool for system administrators for performing tasks that regular users cannot. Further, unrestricted access comes with inherent risks, as a mistake or malicious command executed as root can have devastating consequences.
On the other hand, user accounts allow individuals to work within a controlled environment. The regular user accounts have restricted privileges, ensuring that they can only access and modify files and directories for which they have appropriate permissions. This segregation of privileges enhances system security.
3. Why Return From Root to User Accounts?
There are several reasons why we might need to return from root to user. Let’s look at them more closely.
3.1. Enhanced Security
By using a regular user account for everyday tasks, we can reduce the risk of accidentally making system-wide changes that could lead to instability or data loss.
3.2. Audit Trail
Using user accounts provides an audit trail of who performed specific actions on the system. This is crucial for tracking changes and maintaining accountability.
3.3. Limited Scope
Regular user accounts are restricted in their privileges, preventing them from modifying critical system files or configurations unintentionally. Returning away from root access ensures that modifications are made within a controlled and safe environment.
3.4. Least Privilege Principle
Returning from root to user login aligns with the principle of least privilege, where users are only granted the minimum permissions necessary to perform their tasks.
4. Returning From Root to User Accounts
Logging in as the root user grants us complete control over the system. However, once our administrative tasks are complete, it’s crucial to revert to a regular user to minimize the risk of accidental or unauthorized changes.
Let’s see how we can return from a root login to a user login in the Linux shell.
4.1. Using su
In some cases, we might need to switch from the root account to a specific user account without exiting the terminal session.
For instance, to switch to a user from the root account, we use the su (switch user) command followed by the username of the user account to which we wish to switch to:
# su username
We can replace the username with the actual username of the desired user account.
4.2. Using exit
Let’s type exit at the command prompt and press Enter:
This exit command terminates the root session and takes us back to the user account we were previously logged in as.
Alternatively, we can also return from root to user accounts using the shortcut method, i.e., CTRL+D.
In this article, we explored the use of root and user accounts and returning from root login to user login within the shell environment in Linux.
By utilizing commands like su and exit, we can return from root to user accounts, striking a balance between administrative tasks and system safety. Ultimately, practicing responsible account management contributes to a stable and secure Linux environment.