## 1. Overview

Awk is a versatile and powerful text-processing language supporting many string and arithmetic functions.

In this tutorial, **we’ll learn how to take the absolute value of a number in Awk**.

## 2. Understanding the Scenario

Let’s start by taking a look at the sample *input.txt* file:

```
$ cat input.txt
-100
900
-2
-4.5
```

We can see that the file contains some negative values.

Most programming languages support an *abs()* function to get the absolute value of numbers. Let’s see if there’s an in-built *abs()* function in Awk for our use case:

```
$ awk '{
print abs($1);
}' input.txt
awk: cmd. line:1: (FILENAME=input.txt FNR=1) fatal: function `abs' not defined
```

Unfortunately, we **got an error suggesting that the abs() function isn’t available**. So, we need to find other ways to solve our use case.

## 3. Using Conditional Operator

Awk supports the **conditional operator ( ?) to choose between two expressions based on a condition**:

`condition ? expression1 : expression2`

Let’s use the conditional operator to get the absolute value of the first field (*$1*) from the *input.txt* file:

```
$ awk '{
abs_val = ($1 >= 0) ? $1 : -$1;
print abs_val;
}' input.txt
100
900
2
4.5
```

Great! We got the absolute value in the *abs_val* variable, and the result looks correct.

## 4. Using the *if* Condition

Alternatively, we can **use an if condition to negate the negative values** and get the absolute value. Let’s see this in action:

```
$ awk '{
abs_val = $1;
if (abs_val < 0) {
abs_val = -$1;
}
print abs_val;
}' input.txt
100
900
2
4.5
```

It works as expected!

## 5. Using *sqrt()* Function

Mathematically speaking, **we can get the absolute value of a number, N, using the square (^2) and square root operators**:

`√N^2 = |N|`

Within the Awk community of developers, this is a common technique to get absolute values.

Let’s use this approach to solve our use case of getting the absolute value of the first field (*$1*) from the *input.txt* file:

```
$ awk '{
abs_val = sqrt($1^2);
print abs_val;
}' input.txt
100
900
2
4.5
```

Perfect! We got this one right!

## 6. Using *gsub()* Function

Firstly, we should acknowledge that Awk is designed and optimized for performing text-processing tasks. So, taking a text-oriented approach to solve our use case is natural.

Now, **one possible approach for calculating the absolute value of numbers is to replace the negative sign ( –) with an empty string**. For this purpose, we can use the

*gsub()*function to replace a pattern in a string:

`gsub(regexp, replacement, target)`

Lastly, let’s use *gsub()* to replace the negative sign (*–*) with an empty string for solving our use case:

```
$ awk '{
abs_val = $1;
gsub(/-/, "", abs_val);
print abs_val;
}' input.txt
100
900
2
4.5
```

Our approach worked as expected.

## 7. Using User-Defined Function

We’ve learned many approaches to getting absolute values. However, the most developer-centric approach is to **write a custom function to get the absolute value because we don’t get it directly from Awk**.

So, let’s define the *my_abs()* function using the conditional operator approach:

```
function my_abs(x) {
return x < 0 ? -x : x
}
```

We must note that we could also use other approaches within the body of the *my_abs()* function.

Next, let’s see the complete *awk* script in action, where we **call the my_abs() function to get the absolute value** of the first field (

*$1*):

```
$ awk '
function my_abs(x) {
return x < 0 ? -x : x
}
{
abs_val = my_abs($1);
print abs_val;
}' input.txt
100
900
2
4.5
```

Fantastic! It looks like we nailed this one.

## 8. Conclusion

In this article, we **learned how to get the absolute value of numbers in Awk**. Furthermore, while solving the use case, we explored the *sqrt()* and *gsub()* functions along with the *if* condition, user-defined function, and conditional operator (*?*).