## 1. Overview

Scala, a powerful language for functional programming, offers various features for managing and manipulating data structures. Among them, arrays hold a significant place due to their versatility and broad applicability. In this tutorial, we’ll dive into three Scala methods for appending elements to arrays:

• :+ appends an element at the end of the array
• +: prepends an element at the start of the array
• :+= and +:= modify an array in-place

The exploration of these methods not only extends our arsenal of Scala techniques but also offers insight into the principles underpinning Scala’s design, such as immutability and the favoring of expressions over statements. Let’s get started.

## 2. Array Fundamentals in Scala

Before we delve into the specifics of array manipulation, it’s essential to understand what arrays in Scala entail. Arrays in Scala are mutable, indexed sequences that provide fast and constant-time access to elements based on their indices. Despite their mutability, arrays have a fixed length at the point of creation and cannot be resized directly. For a deeper dive into Scala arrays, the ‘Guide to Arrays in Scala‘ is a great resource.

This fixed-length characteristic necessitates using methods that create new arrays to include additional elements. Let’s examine these methods closely.

## 3. Adding an Element to the Array’s End With :+

Let’s begin with the situation where we must add an element to the end of an existing array. Scala provides the :+ operator for this purpose. Suppose we have an array, array = Array(1, 2, 3). For more information on initializing arrays, refer to our guide, ‘Initializing an Array in Scala‘. Now, let’s proceed to append the integer 4 to our array:

``````val array = Array(1, 2, 3)
val array2 = array :+ 4``````

Now, array2 should be Array(1, 2, 3, 4). We can verify this outcome with the ScalaTest’s assert function:

``assert(array2 sameElements Array(1, 2, 3, 4))``

It’s crucial to note here that :+ generates a new array without modifying the original. This characteristic aligns with the functional programming principle of immutability, favoring operations that avoid mutating data structures, thus reducing side effects.

In some scenarios, we might want to prepend an element to the start of an array. To cater to this requirement, Scala provides the +: operator:

``````val array = Array(1, 2, 3)
val array2 = 4 +: array``````

In this case, array2 becomes Array(4, 1, 2, 3). We can confirm this by using an assert function:

``assert(array2 sameElements Array(4, 1, 2, 3))``

Similar to the :+ operator, the +: operator also returns a new array, leaving the original array untouched. Preserving the original array is a testament to the value Scala places on immutability.

## 5. Modifying Arrays In-Place With :+= and +:=

While the :+ and +: operators create new arrays, there are times when we may want to modify an existing array in place. Scala accommodates this with the :+= and +:= operators. Note, however, that these operators work only with mutable arrays, i.e., arrays declared with var.

The :+= operator appends an element at the end of the array:

``````var array = Array(1, 2, 3)
array :+= 4``````

Here, the original array becomes Array(1, 2, 3, 4). Let’s verify this:

``assert(array sameElements Array(1, 2, 3, 4))``

On the other hand, the +:= operator prepends an element at the beginning of the array:

``````var array = Array(1, 2, 3)
array +:= 4``````

Now, array changes to Array(4, 1, 2, 3). Let’s validate this:

``assert(array sameElements Array(4, 1, 2, 3))``

While :+= and +:= have their uses, remember that they mutate the original array. This behavior might not be desirable in a functional programming paradigm where immutability is favored.

## 6. Conclusion

In this article, we’ve comprehensively looked at appending elements to arrays in Scala. We’ve learned that the :+ operator can append elements at the end, +: can prepend elements at the start, and :+= or +:= can modify an array in place.

We’ve also noted the importance of Scala’s immutability convention. The :+ and +: operators leave the original array unchanged, reflecting the principles of functional programming. On the other hand, :+= and +:= modify the original array in place, which requires a mutable declaration.

With these methods at our disposal, we’re well-equipped to handle array manipulations in Scala more efficiently. Remember, the correct approach depends on the specific needs and the context in which we’re working.

As always, the full source code of the working examples is available over on GitHub.