1. Introduction

Asynchronous programming plays a vital role in developing responsive and efficient applications. Traditionally, Java developers have relied on callback methods to handle asynchronous operations.

However, in the world of Kotlin, coroutines have emerged as the preferred approach. This is because coroutines offer a more elegant and concise way to handle asynchronous tasks. In this tutorial, we’ll learn how to convert callback methods to coroutines in Kotlin, enabling us to leverage the power of coroutines and simultaneously write cleaner, more readable code.

2. Callbacks vs. Coroutines

Before we dive into converting callbacks to coroutines, let’s briefly understand what callbacks and coroutines are.

2.1. Callbacks

Callbacks are functions passed as parameters to other functions. We typically use them to handle the result of an asynchronous operation. When the asynchronous task is completed, the callback function is invoked, often with the result as an argument. Callback-based code can become complex and hard to maintain, especially when dealing with multiple asynchronous operations or error handling.

Here’s an example of a callback-based implementation:

interface Callback {
    fun onSuccess(result: String)
    fun onFailure(error: Throwable)

fun fetchData(callback: Callback) {
    // Simulating an asynchronous operation
    Thread {
        try {
            // Perform a long-running operation
            val processedData = processData()
        } catch (e: Exception) {

fun processData(): String {
    return "processed-data"

In the above example, we define a Callback interface with onSuccess() and onFailure() methods. The fetchData() method takes an instance of the Callback interface as a parameter and executes an asynchronous task. When the task completes or fails, we invoke the appropriate callback method.

2.2. Coroutines

In Kotlin, coroutines provide an alternative approach for handling asynchronous tasks. With coroutines, we can write simpler and more sequential code which is generally easier to read and write.

Here’s an example of a coroutines-based implementation of a function that performs an asynchronous operation like the previous example:

suspend fun fetchData(): String {
    // Simulating an asynchronous operation
    return processData()

suspend fun processData(): String = withContext(Dispatchers.IO) {
    // Simulating a long-running operation
    return@withContext "processed-data"

3. Converting Callbacks to Coroutines

Now, let’s explore the process of converting callback methods to coroutines. We’ll walk through the steps involved and explain how each step contributes to the transformation.

3.1. Identify the Callback Function

The first step is to locate the function in our codebase that utilizes a callback. This function represents the asynchronous operation we want to convert to a coroutine. Additionally, we should also identify the callback parameters and return type, as they will be relevant for the conversion process.

3.2. Transform the Callback Into a suspend Function

To convert the callback-based function to a coroutine, we need to transform it into a suspend function. We can achieve this by using the suspendCoroutine() or suspendCancellableCoroutine() builder functions provided by Kotlin coroutines.

Inside the suspendCoroutine() block, we need to invoke the callback-based function that we defined previously. The callback will be invoked when the asynchronous operation completes.

As an example, let’s look at how we can convert our callback-based function to use coroutines:

suspend fun fetchDataWithCoroutine(): String = suspendCoroutine { continuation ->
    val callback = createCallbackWithContinuation(
        onSuccess = continuation::resume,
        onFailure = continuation::resumeWithException

fun createCallbackWithContinuation(
    onSuccess: (String) -> Unit,
    onFailure: (Throwable) -> Unit
) = object : Callback {
    // Resume the coroutine with the result
    override fun onSuccess(result: String) = onSuccess(result)

    // Resume the coroutine with an exception
    override fun onFailure(error: Throwable) = onFailure(error)

In the example above, we’ve transformed the fetchData() function into a suspend function. To do this, we invoke the suspendCoroutine() builder, which takes a lambda with a continuation parameter. Notably, inside the lambda, we call the original callback-based function — fetchDataWithCallback() in this example — and handle the result or the exception by resuming the coroutine with the appropriate value.

Alternatively, we can also use the suspendCancellableCoroutine() function if our code needs to support the cancellation of the coroutine.

3.3. Update the Call Site

After transforming the callback function into a coroutine, we’ll also need to update the call site of this function to invoke it properly.
Since the transformed function is now a suspend function, we can call it directly from other suspending functions or within a coroutine scope.

Let’s look at an example that illustrates the difference. First, let’s take a look at an example of how the callback-based implementation can be invoked:

fun main() {
    // Creating the callback object
    val callback = createCallback()

    // Calling the fetchData function with a callback


fun createCallback() = object : Callback {
    override fun onSuccess(result: String) {
        // Handle successful result

    override fun onFailure(error: Throwable) {
        // Handle error

Subsequently, let’s look at how we can invoke the transformed, coroutine-based implementation:

fun main() {
    val exceptionHandler = CoroutineExceptionHandler { _, throwable ->
        // Handle exception

    // Calling the fetchData function within a coroutine scope with an exception handler
    GlobalScope.launch(exceptionHandler) {
        val result = fetchDataWithCoroutine()
        // Handle successful result

As we can see, by converting callbacks to coroutines, we can make our code more linear and readable while also avoiding the complexity and nesting associated with callback-based code.

4. Conclusion

In this tutorial, we explored converting callback methods to coroutines in Kotlin. We learned about the drawbacks of using callbacks and the benefits of coroutines in handling asynchronous operations instead. By transforming callback functions into suspend functions using functions like suspendCoroutine(), we can write significantly cleaner and more maintainable code.

As always, the code samples can be found over on GitHub.