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1. Overview

Serving static files to the client can be done in a variety of ways, and using a Spring Controller isn’t necessarily the best available option.

However, sometimes the controller route is necessary – and that’s what we’re going to be focused on in this quick article.

2. Using @ResponseBody

The first straightforward solution is to use the @ResponseBody annotation on a controller method to indicate that the object returned by the method should be marshalled directly to the HTTP  response body:

@GetMapping("/get-text")
public @ResponseBody String getText() {
    return "Hello world";
}

Thus, this method will just return the string Hello world instead of returning a view whose name is Hello world, like a more typical MVC application.

With @ResponseBody we can return pretty much any media type, as long as we have a corresponding HTTP Message converter that can handle and marshall that to the output stream.

3. Using produces for Returning Images

Returning byte arrays allows us to return almost anything – such as images or files:

@GetMapping(value = "/image")
public @ResponseBody byte[] getImage() throws IOException {
    InputStream in = getClass()
      .getResourceAsStream("/com/baeldung/produceimage/image.jpg");
    return IOUtils.toByteArray(in);
}

Here, we’re not defining that the returned byte array is an image. Therefore, the client won’t be able to handle this as an image – and more than likely the browser will simply e display the actual bytes of the image.

To define that the returned byte array corresponds to an image, we can set the produces attribute of the @GetMapping annotation to precise the MIME type of the returned object:

@GetMapping(
  value = "/get-image-with-media-type",
  produces = MediaType.IMAGE_JPEG_VALUE
)
public @ResponseBody byte[] getImageWithMediaType() throws IOException {
    InputStream in = getClass()
      .getResourceAsStream("/com/baeldung/produceimage/image.jpg");
    return IOUtils.toByteArray(in);
}

Here produces is set to MediaType.IMAGE_JPEG_VALUE to indicate that the returned object must be handled as a JPEG image.

And now, the browser is going to recognize and properly display the response body as an image.

4. Using produces for Returning Raw Data

The parameter produces can be set to a lot of different values (the complete list can be found here) depending on the type of object we want to return.

Therefore, if we want to return a raw file, we can simply use APPLICATION_OCTET_STREAM_VALUE:

@GetMapping(
  value = "/get-file",
  produces = MediaType.APPLICATION_OCTET_STREAM_VALUE
)
public @ResponseBody byte[] getFile() throws IOException {
    InputStream in = getClass()
      .getResourceAsStream("/com/baeldung/produceimage/data.txt");
    return IOUtils.toByteArray(in);
}

5. Conclusion

In this quick article, we had a look at a simple problem – returning images or files from a Spring Controller.

And, as always, the example code can be found over on Github.

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Sumanth
Guest

Simple, quick and great!

Slava Semushin
Guest

I’d like to see here an example of setting content type dynamically. This is needed when we’re serving a content that were previously uploaded by users and it could be not only JPEG but also PNG and GIF images.

Grzegorz Piwowarek
Guest

Sure, I added a task to our backlog!

Eugen Paraschiv
Guest

Hey Slava – just wanted to jump in with a quick note. As you might know, we’re always looking for new authors, so if you ever want to give that a go, the door is open.
Cheers,
Eugen.

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